Xianbao Shen, Hui Wu, Xinyue Cao, Wei Zhang, Zhiliang Yao , Xuewei Hao

School of Food and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China

Received: October 19, 2017
Revised: June 10, 2018
Accepted: July 18, 2018
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0401  

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Cite this article:
Shen, X., Wu, H., Cao, X., Zhang, W., Yao, Z. and Hao, X. (2018). Gaseous and Carbonaceous Composition of PM2.5 Emitted from Rural Vehicles in China. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 1993-2004. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0401


  • 10 3-W RVs and 8 4-W RVs were measured in Hebei Province using a PEMS.
  • The carbonaceous component represents the main fraction of PM2.5 emitted from RVs.
  • The CO2-based EFs of OC and EC decreased with increasing vehicle mass.
  • More cruise and less creep mode caused higher EC/OC for 3-W RVs than 4-W RVs.


Rural vehicles (RVs) could contribute significantly to on-road vehicle emissions, especially PM2.5 and NOx; This study tested 10 three-wheeled (3-W) RVs and 8 four-wheeled (4-W) RVs on real roads in Hebei Province using a portable emissions measurement system to investigate gaseous concentrations (CO, NOx, and HC) and the carbonaceous composition (EC and OC) of the PM2.5 emitted. The results showed that the tightening emission standards resulted in the CO, HC, and PM2.5 emissions for China II RVs decreasing, but may increasing NOx emission for China II 3-W RVs. The emission level of PM2.5 for China II RVs is between Euro II LDDTs and Euro III LDDTs. The emission factors (EFs) of OC and EC for 3-W RVs were 0.035 ± 0.019 and 0.058 ± 0.055 g km-1, respectively, and for 4-W RVs, they were 0.046 ± 0.018 and 0.031 ± 0.024 g km-1, respectively. The carbonaceous component represents the main fraction of PM2.5 emitted from RVs (84.6% and 87.2% for 3-W and 4-W RVs, respectively), similar to other diesel vehicles. The average distance-based EFs of OC increased with increasing vehicle size (3-W RVs < 4-W RVs). The CO2-based EFs of OC and EC decreased with increasing vehicle mass, consistent with the emission laws of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Driving cycles that included more cruise mode and less creep mode resulted in a higher average EC/OC ratio (1.57) for 3-W RVs than for 4-W RVs (0.63), and resulted in the average EC/OC ratios for both types of RV were lower than for highway LDDTs.

Keywords: Carbonaceous composition; Gaseous emission; Particulate matter; Rural vehicle; PEMS.


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