Pan Jiang1, Lingxiao Yang 1,3, Xiangfeng Chen4, Ying Gao2, Yanyan Li1, Junmei Zhang1, Tong Zhao1, Hao Yu2, Wenxing Wang1

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China
Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China

Received: August 18, 2017
Revised: November 12, 2017
Accepted: November 13, 2017
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Cite this article:
Jiang, P., Yang, L., Chen, X., Gao, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Zhao, T., Yu, H. and Wang, W. (2018). Impact of Dust Storms on NPAHs and OPAHs in PM2.5 in Jinan, China, in Spring 2016: Concentrations, Health Risks, and Sources. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 471-484.


  • NPAHs and OPAHs in PM2.5 were measured in Jinan, China, in spring 2016.
  • Dust storms could promote the secondary formation of NPAHs.
  • During dust storms, NPAHs and OPAHs were influenced by long-distance transport.
  • The ILCR of NPAHs was higher on hazy days and during dust storms than on clear days.


To better understand the influence of dust storms on nitrogen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and oxygen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs), PM2.5 was collected using prebaked quartz filters at Shandong University, Jinan, China, in spring 2016. The concentrations of 16 NPAHs and 5 OPAHs in PM2.5 were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest concentration of NPAHs was recorded during dust storm 1 (DS1; 4.62 ng m–3), which was higher than those recorded during haze (2.28 ng m–3) and on clear days (0.17 ng m–3). The concentrations of 2+3N-FLA and 9N-ANT were considerably higher during haze and dust storms. The total concentration of OPAHs was highest during haze (7.72 ng m–3) and was 2–4.2 times higher than those during DS1, dust storm 2 (DS2), dust storm 3 (DS3) (all 2.38–3.07 ng m–3) and on clear days (1.82 ng m–3). The three most abundant OPAHs were 9-fluorenone, 9,10-anthraquinone, and naphthalene-1-aldehyde during all studied periods. The 2+3N-FLA/1N-PYR ratio indicated that NPAHs were dominated by  secondary generation throughout the sampling period and that dust storm days were more conducive to the secondary generation of NPAHs than were hazy days. During dust storms, NPAHs and OPAHs were influenced by long-distance transport originating in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. NPAHs and OPAHs in PM2.5 were mainly derived from vehicle exhausts, solid fuel combustion, secondary generation, and crustal sources throughout the sampling period. The highest ∑BaPeq value (0.0928 ng m–3) was recorded during DS2. The incremental lifetime cancer risk and total risk on hazy days and the three dust storm episodes were higher than those on clear days.

Keywords: Nitrogen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Dust storms; Longdistance transport; Secondary generation; Cancer risk.


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