Shamsh Pervez 1, Shahina Bano1, John G. Watson2,7, Judith C. Chow 2,7, Jeevan Lal Matawle1,3, Anjali Shrivastava5, Suresh Tiwari5, Yasmeen Fatima Pervez6

School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA
Directorate of Geology and Mining, Chhattisgarh, Regional Laboratory, Jagdalpur 494001, Chhattisgarh, India
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India
Indian Institute of Tropical and Meteorology (IITM), New Delhi 110060, India
Department of Engineering Chemistry, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg 491010, Chhattisgarh, India
Institute of Earth and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Xian 710061, China

Received: August 3, 2017
Revised: January 14, 2018
Accepted: February 4, 2018
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Cite this article:
Pervez, S., Bano, S., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Matawle, J.L., Shrivastava, A., Tiwari, S. and Pervez, Y.F. (2018). Source Profiles for PM10-2.5 Resuspended Dust and Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Central India. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 1660-1672.


  • Crustal element’s abundance in dust while OC and EC dominate in exhaust emissions.
  • Ca accounted ~30% of construction dust while Fe accounted ~20% in paved road dust.
  • Diesel vehicular exhaust profiles consisted of 5–7% of EC, with higher Pb, Se, S.
  • Heavy-duty diesel profile consisted of ~20% EC with abundant Pb, Se, and Zn.



Eight composite PM10-2.5 source profiles were developed for resuspended dust and vehicle exhaust emissions with 32 chemical species, including 21 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V, and Zn), 9 water-soluble ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl, F, NO3, and SO42–), and carbonaceous fractions (OC and EC). Dust samples were dominated by crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) while exhaust emissions showed high abundances of carbonaceous aerosol (OC and EC). Crustal species (Al, Fe, Mg, and Na) were more enriched over native soils in PM10-2.5 as compared to PM2.5. The higher coefficients of divergence (COD) indicate that profiles differ from each other. Ca accounted for nearly 30% of PM10-2.5 mass in construction dust while Fe accounted for nearly 20% of PM10-2.5 mass in paved road dust. Three- and four-wheeler diesel exhaust profiles consisted of 5–7% EC, with 6–10 times higher Pb, Se, and S abundances than those in two-wheeler gasoline exhaust profile. The heavy-duty diesel exhaust profile consist of nearly 20% EC with abundant (> 0.5%) trace elements (e.g., Pb, Se, and Zn).

Keywords: PM10-2.5; Source profile; Enrichment factor; Source markers; Resuspended dust; Vehicle exhaust.


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