Grzegorz Majewski 1, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska2,3, Katarzyna Rozbicka1, Patrycja Rogula-Kopiec3, Barbara Mathews3, Andrzej Brandyk1

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
The Main School of Fire Service, Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering, 01-629 Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, 41-819 Zabrze, Poland

Received: July 12, 2017
Revised: February 7, 2018
Accepted: February 8, 2018
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Cite this article:
Majewski, G., Rogula-Kozłowska, W., Rozbicka, K., Rogula-Kopiec, P., Mathews, B. and Brandyk, A. (2018). Concentration, Chemical Composition and Origin of PM1: Results from the First Long-term Measurement Campaign in Warsaw (Poland). Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 636-654.


  • First, long-term research campaign in Poland on day by day PM1 chemical composition.
  • Evidence for dominant fraction of secondary inorganic aerosol in PM1 mass.
  • Source fractions and their seasonal fluctuations for PM1 concentration were presented.


This paper presents a 120-day-long variability of chemical composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) over Warsaw. The content of the following components was examined in the PM1 mass: primary (POM) and secondary (SOM) organic matter, secondary inorganic matter (SIM), elemental carbon (EC) as well as Na and Cl ions (primary inorganic matter). The 24-hour concentrations of PM1 were subject to seasonal fluctuations which are typical of urban areas in Poland; their values averaged 11 µg m–3 in summer and 17 µg m–3 in winter. Most of the PM1 components and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 and NOx) revealed higher mean concentrations in winter than in summer. A statistical analysis of meteorological parameters and 24-h concentrations of PM1, PM10, SO2, NO2 and NOx confirmed a significant influence of air temperature and precipitation on the concentration patterns of these pollutants over Warsaw. The highest concentrations of PM1 occurred in winter for the following wind directions: S, SE, N and NE; in summer for NE, E and S. The analysis of back trajectories demonstrated that on days with the highest 24-h concentration of PM1 polluted air masses arrived from S and SE and affected the concentration of PM1 over Warsaw. The submicron particulate matter, in as much as 62%, comprises secondary matter (SOM and SIM). The primary sources of its precursors and – to a smaller extent – of the primary matter as well – are traffic and combustion of various fuels for the purpose of heat and power generation. Their average contribution to the development of PM1 was 15% and 51%, respectively, for the entire period of observations.

Keywords: Secondary aerosol; Carbonaceous matter; Submicron particles; Air mass inflow; Fossil fuels combustion.


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