Byeong-Uk Kim1, Seunghee You2, Hyun Cheol Kim3,4, Yongjae Lim5, Insuk Suh5, Jae-Bum Lee5, Jung-Hun Woo6, Soontae Kim 2

  • 1 Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Atlanta, GA 30334 , USA
  • 2 Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea
  • 3 Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, College Park, MD 20740, USA
  • 4 Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
  • 5 Air Quality Forecasting Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
  • 6 Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea

Received: May 8, 2017
Revised: October 31, 2017
Accepted: November 16, 2017
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Cite this article:
Kim, B.U., You, S., Kim, H.C., Lim, Y., Suh, I., Lee, J.B., Woo, J.H. and Kim, S. (2017). Influence of Different Foreign Emissions Inventories on Simulated, Ground-Level Ozone in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during May 2014. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 3179-3193.


  • Effect of regional emission inventory on ozone in Seoul was investigated.
  • Three most frequently used regional emission inventories were used for simulations.
  • Controlling both NOx and VOCs results in less ozone reductions than controlling each.
  • Some inventories may be more susceptible to meteorological changes.
  • Domestic control scenarios need to be tested with multiple foreign inventories.



This study examines the effects of different foreign anthropogenic emissions inventories on predicted ozone concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea, and estimates changes in ozone due to emissions reductions. We ran the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method with three inventories of foreign anthropogenic emissions: (1) the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment, Phase B (INTEX-B) 2006; (2) the Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment (CREATE) 2010; and (3) the Model Inter-Comparison Study (MICS)-Asia 2010. All three inventories have different spatial distributions of emissions, yielding different modeled ozone concentrations. However, the ozone concentrations modeled for the SMA differ less than those modeled for large, foreign cities in the modeling domain. The simulations using INTEX-B 2006 and CREATE 2010 suggested greater reduction in ozone with NOx control than with VOCs control. All simulations show that (1) simultaneous reduction in NOx and VOCs leads to less ozone reduction than the sum of ozone reductions for individual NOx and VOCs controls and (2) ozone reductions are stronger for high ozone days than for low ozone days. Comparing the modeled reductions in the relative sense yields smaller differences between high and low ozone days than comparing the modeled reductions in the absolute sense. With a 20% reduction in only NOx emissions, the differences in MDA1O3 among the three inventories were between 0.3 and 0.7 ppb. Because air-quality planning often leads to defined tonnage reductions, we examined the model’s response to such a defined emissions reduction. Using the NOx reduction in China estimated by Zhao et al. (2013), we estimated that the differences in MDA1O3 among the three inventories were between 1.50 and 1.78 ppb. Based on these results, we recommend using different foreign anthropogenic emissions inventories to test future scenarios for air-quality control

Keywords: Anthropogenic emissions; Ozone; CMAQ; Sensitivity; Seoul; Foreign inventory

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