Sheng-Lun Lin1,2, Jen-Hsiung Tsai3, Shui-Jen Chen 3, Kuo-Lin Huang3, Chih-Chung Lin3, Ho-Tsang Huang3, Yi-Chin Hsieh3, Chuen-Huey Chiu3

  • 1 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 2 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan

Received: April 27, 2017
Revised: May 24, 2017
Accepted: May 25, 2017
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Cite this article:
Lin, S.L., Tsai, J.H., Chen, S.J., Huang, K.L., Lin, C.C., Huang, H.T., Hsieh, Y.C. and Chiu, C.H. (2017). Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Particle-Bound Metals from a Diesel Engine Generator Fueled with Waste Cooking Oil-Based Biodiesel Blends. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 1679-1689.


  • PAHs and Particulate Metals from a non-road diesel engine generator were studied.
  • Emissions of particle-bound metals were reduced for W20 but were increased for W40.
  • The metal elements of PM were dominated (> 90% mass) by Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn.
  • Using WCO-biodiesel blends could effectively reduce total-PAHs and total-BaPeq.



This study investigates the emission of a heavy-duty diesel engine generator fueled with waste cooking oil (WCO)-based biodiesel blends (W) and operated at 1.5 and 3.0 kW loads. A brand of pure fossil diesel was adopted as the base fuel, with 20% and 40% WCO-based biodiesel added into the based fuel to form W20 and W40 blends, respectively. The emission characteristics of PM, metals and PAHs were analyzed. Experimental results indicate that alternative WCO-based fuels had slightly higher fuel consumption rates (FCR) and brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) than conventional diesel (0.6–4.1% for FCR and 1.0–7.6% for BSFC), and similar engine thermal efficiency. The PM emissions reductions when using W20 and W40 were 19% and 6.5%, respectively, at 1.5 kW, and 27% and 19%, respectively, at 3.0 kW. The emissions of particle-bound metals were 13.6–13.8% lower when using W20 than using conventional diesel, but 12.0–12.3% higher when using W40. The metal contents of PM rose with the addition of WCO-based biodiesel. The metal elements of PM were dominated (> 90% mass) by Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Zn, while the major trace metals were Mn, Cu, Sr and Pb. The use of WCO-based biodiesel blends reduced the emissions of total-PAHs (44.0% in average) and total-BaPeq (80.2% in average). The mass reductions of MMW- and HMW-PAHs using W20 and W40 were more significant at 3.0 kW than at 1.5 kW, while the reduction of LMW-PAHs was greater at 1.5 kW than at 3.0 kW. Thus, the reduction in total-BaPeq was greater at the higher engine load. Accordingly, we conclude that the WCO-based biodiesel is a potential candidate of cleaner alternative energy sources.

Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Waste cooking oil; Biodiesel; Particle bound metals; Diesel engine generator

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