Bingtao Zhao

  • School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China

Received: April 10, 2017
Revised: May 30, 2017
Accepted: May 30, 2017
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Cite this article:
Zhao, B (2017). Ultrafine Aerosol Particles from Laser Printing Process: Response Relationship between Operating Parameters and Emission Characteristics. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 2139-2151.


  • Effects of operating parameters on ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers.
  • Ultrafine particle emission characteristics for typical commercial laser printers.
  • Effects of ready process, page quantity, coverage and print mode were addressed.
  • Results can provide an approach to reduce printer-emitted ultrafine particles.



Ultrafine aerosol particles (UFAP, diameter < 100 nm) emitted from laser printers have been considered as toxic aerosol. To address the response relationship between the operating parameters and real-time ultrafine emissions, three commercial printers were used to experimentally investigate their emission characteristics under different operating parameters including: the ready process, the number of pages printed, the page coverage and the print mode. The results showed that ultrafine particle emissions varied with the printer model. No causal correlation existed between the ultrafine particle number concentration and the PM2.5 mass concentration of a specific printer. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics were highly associated with operating parameters other than printer/cartridge toner model. Not all of the tested printers displayed ultrafine particle emissions in the ready process. Ultrafine particle emissions increased with increasing number of printed pages and page coverage with a nonlinear relationship. Compared with continuous printing, intermittent printing has a so-called “peak-shaving” or “peak-shift” effect. The results may help to provide a simple and effective way to control and reduce ultrafine particle emissions from laser printers by means of improvement of operating conditions.

Keywords: Ultrafine particles; Laser printer; Operating parameter; Emission characteristics; Response relationship

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