Olga B. Popovicheva 1, Cornelia Irimiea2, Yvain Carpentier2, Ismael K. Ortega2,3, Elena D. Kireeva1, Natalia K. Shonija4, Jaroslav Schwarz5, Michal Vojtíšek-Lom6, Cristian Focsa2

  • 1 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
  • 2 Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8523 – PhLAM – Physique des Lasers Atomes et Molécules, F-59000 Lille, France
  • 3 Onera – The French Aerospace Lab, F-91761 Palaiseau, France
  • 4 Chemical Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
  • 5 Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals CAS, Prague, CZ-16502, Czech Republic
  • 6 Center for Sustainable Mobility, Czech Technical University in Prague, CZ-16607, Czech Republic

Received: April 7, 2017
Revised: June 14, 2017
Accepted: June 15, 2017
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.04.0127  

Cite this article:
Popovicheva, O.B., Irimiea, C., Carpentier, Y., Ortega, I.K., Kireeva, E.D., Shonija, N.K., Schwarz, J., Vojtíšek-Lom, M. and Focsa, C. (2017). Chemical Composition of Diesel/Biodiesel Particulate Exhaust by FTIR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Fuel and Driving Cycle. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 1717-1734. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.04.0127


  • FTIR and MS analyses of diesel/biodiesel soot in steady-state/transient conditions.
  • Correlation between chemical bonds and molecular fragments.
  • FTIR functional groups provide fuel and operating condition spectral signatures.
  • MS-based PCA classifies fuel/engine working regimes.



The growing concern about air quality and the impact exhaust particles can have on the environment has resulted in the increased use of alternative fuels. A sampling campaign from a conventional heavy diesel engine operated in typical transient cycle or steady-state condition, and running on diesel, 30% biodiesel in diesel, and 100% biodiesel was carried out. The particulate composition was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Two-step Laser Mass Spectrometry (L2MS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), thermo-optical analysis, and capillary electrophoresis. Elemental carbon is demonstrated to decrease from diesel to 100% biodiesel, in agreement with the evolution of aromatic bands and the MS abundance of Cn fragments, while organic carbon exhibits a constant level irrespective of the working regime. Aliphatic, aromatic, carboxyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl functionalities, and nitro compounds are found to depend on the engine-working regime. Mass spectra are mainly characterized by alkyl fragments (CnH2n+1+), associated to normal and branched alkanes, PAHs and their alkylated derivatives. The addition of biodiesel to diesel changes the particulate composition towards more oxygenated constituents, such as carbonyl groups attributed to methyl ester CH3O+ fragments of unburned biodiesel. Fuel-specific fragments have been identified, such as C3H7O+ for diesel, and C2H3O2+ and CH3O for biodiesel. Nitrogenized compounds are revealed by -NO2 functionalities and N-containing fragments. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was successfully applied to discriminate the engine operating conditions, with a higher variance given by the fuel, thus allowing to better evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

Keywords: Diesel engine; FTIR; Mass spectrometry; Particulate emission; Environmental pollution

Share this article with your colleagues 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

77st percentile
Powered by
   SCImago Journal & Country Rank

2022 Impact Factor: 4.0
5-Year Impact Factor: 3.4

Aerosol and Air Quality Research partners with Publons

CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit
CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal that promotes submissions of high-quality research and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world. We use cookies on this website to personalize content to improve your user experience and analyze our traffic. By using this site you agree to its use of cookies.