Shantanu Kumar Pani1, Chung-Te Lee 2, Charles C.-K. Chou3, Kojiro Shimada4,5, Shiro Hatakeyama4,5, Akinori Takami6, Sheng-Hsiang Wang1, Neng-Huei Lin 1,4

  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
  • 2 Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
  • 3 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
  • 4 Global Innovation Research Organization, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 1083-8538, Japan
  • 5 Institute of Agriculture, Graduate School of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 1083-8538, Japan
  • 6 Center for Regional Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan

Received: March 6, 2017
Revised: May 31, 2017
Accepted: June 29, 2017
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Cite this article:
Pani, S.K., Lee, C.T., Chou, C.C.K., Shimada, K., Hatakeyama, S., Takami, A., Wang, S.H. and Lin, N.H. (2017). Chemical Characterization of Wintertime Aerosols over Islands and Mountains in East Asia: Impacts of the Continental Asian Outflow. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 3006-3036.


  • Wintertime surface aerosol chemistry in East Asia was analyzed as part of an IOP.
  • Notable influence of continental Asian outflow was recognized.
  • nss-SO42– and OC3 were the most abundant in WSIIs and OC fractions, respectively.
  • NO3, OC3, and EC1-OP were the tracers of BB.
  • Fire counts and BT analysis showed the BB influence from continental Asian outflow.



This study aimed to characterize the wintertime surface aerosol chemistry over islands and mountains sites (i.e., Cape Fuguei, Mt. Bamboo, Mt. Lulin, Cape Hedo, and Kumamoto) in East Asia. Aerosols were sampled over a 24-h period as part of an intensive observational period (IOP) in winter 2015. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC). PM2.5 mean concentration (in µg m–3) was found the highest over Kumamoto (22 ± 7), followed by Cape Fuguei (20 ± 9), Cape Hedo (11 ± 5), Mt. Bamboo (10 ± 13), and Mt. Lulin (4 ± 3). Strong correlations (r > 0.91) in ion charge balance suggested the good quality of data-sets and the ions share common source origins. Larger variations in (non-sea-salt-sulfate) nss-SO42– and NH4+ over all the sites indicated the significant contribution of anthropogenic emissions from continental Asian outflow. OC was found the most abundant resolved component in PM2.5 over Mt. Lulin (37.58 ± 25.90%) and Mt. Bamboo (33.24 ± 24.11%) than that over Cape Fuguei (11.94 ± 3.48%). OC3 (evolved at 280–480°C) was the most abundant in OC over all the sites, indicating the possible contributions of biomass-burning (BB) while EC1-OP (EC evolved at 580°C minus the pyrolized OC) was found the highest in EC over Cape Fuguei. Analysis of back-trajectories and fire-counts suggested the influence of long-range transported BB from continental Asian outflow. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 along with the BB tracers (i.e., NO3, OC3, and EC1-OP) were also observed during the influence of continental Asian outflow. This study provides needful information to understand the effect of continental Asian outflow on the air quality over East Asia. We propose the long-term and extensive field measurements to upgrade our knowledge on continental Asian outflow BB influence over islands and mountains in East Asia.

Keywords: Aerosol chemistry; Water soluble inorganic ions; Biomass burning; Long range transport; Carbonaceous fractions; Anthropogenic

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