Farran Mack Redfern1, Sheng-Lun Lin 2, Lin-Chi Wang2, Jhong-Lin Wu1,3, Endah Mutiara M.P. 4

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 3 Sustainable Environment Research Laboratories, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of chemistry, Sepuluh November Institute of Technology, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Received: February 6, 2017
Revised: March 7, 2017
Accepted: March 7, 2017
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.02.0066  

Cite this article:
Redfern, F.M., Lin, S.L., Wang, L.C., Wu, J.L. and M.P., E.M. (2017). PBDE Emissions during the Start-up Procedure of an Industrial Waste Incinerator by the Co-Combustion of Waste Cooking Oil and Diesel Fuel. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 975-989. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.02.0066


  • PBDE star-up emissions of an industrial waste incinerator were investigated.
  • Waste cooking oil blends provide higher PBDE emissions from IWI than diesel.
  • Monthly start-up sequence leaded to extra 4.6–5.5% PBDE annual emissions.
  • Waste cooking oil is one of the suitable alternative fuel for IWI start-up.



This study examined the effect of using waste cooking oil (WCO) as an alternative of diesel on PBDE emissions during the start-up of an industrial waste incinerator (IWI). The co-combustions were designed with 0, 40, and 60% WCO injection and become D100, W40D60, and W60D40 multi-fuel combustions. The flue gas was sampled during 4 temperature stages of the furnace: Stage A (< 200°C), Stage B (200–450°C), Stage C (580–700°C), and Stage D (> 850°C). The highest PBDE level was found in Stage A and sharply declined in Stage B by using diesel. The reduction of total PBDE was a competitive result between residue releasing and thermal decomposition in Stage B. The WCO were found to slightly increased the PBDE emissions during the Stage C and D, which provided the suitable temperature for PBDE formation (600–800°C). Therefore, the viscosity became an important control factor when the WCO were utilized as an alternative fuel in IWI operation. The accumulated PBDE emissions during the start-up procedure were 1,099, 1,253, and 1,207 µg by using D100, W40D60, and W60D40, respectively. Additionally, the annual PBDE emissions contributed by start-up procedures increased up to 4.60%, 5.47%, and 5.20% by three fuel combinations, respectively, if the IWI restarted once per month, and became a noticeable issue. Therefore, avoiding unnecessary start-ups was an essential criterion for IWI operation. The small increases (< 1%) of PBDE emissions by altering 40% and 60% diesel with WCO provided a useful information for WCO treatment. This new disposal for waste oil also created a good demonstration of Circular Economy. The overall life-cycle analysis was suggested to be investigated in the following research.

Keywords: Polybrominated diphenyl ether; Industrial waste incinerator; Waste cooking Oil; Start-up; Multi-fuel Combustion

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