Syuichi Itahashi 1, Shiro Hatakeyama2,3,4, Kojiro Shimada2,3, Shiori Tatsuta3, Yuta Taniguchi3, Chak K. Chan5, Yong Pyo Kim2,6,7, Neng-Huei Lin2,8, Akinori Takami9

  • 1 Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba 270-1194, Japan
  • 2 Global Innovation Research Organization, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
  • 3 Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
  • 4 Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115, Japan
  • 5 School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
  • 6 Department of Chemical, Engineering & Materials Science, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea
  • 7 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea
  • 8 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan
  • 9 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan

Received: December 30, 2016
Revised: June 5, 2017
Accepted: June 13, 2017
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Cite this article:
Itahashi, S., Hatakeyama, S., Shimada, K., Tatsuta, S., Taniguchi, Y., Chan, C.K., Kim, Y.P., Lin, N.H. and Takami, A. (2017). Model Estimation of Sulfate Aerosol Sources Collected at Cape Hedo during an Intensive Campaign in October–November, 2015. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 3079-3090.


  • SO42– sources at Cape Hedo were estimated by the tagged tracer method.
  • The impact of mainland China was found when westerly wind prevailed on October 27.
  • Volcano located in western Japan contributed to high SO42– on November 1.
  • An aged air mass explained high SO42– on November 4.
  • Modeled ship source well corresponded to observed V/Mn ratios.



An intensive observation campaign at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan was conducted from late October to early November 2015 to investigate the behavior of long-range transported atmospheric pollutants. During this period, sulfate (SO42–) was the dominant aerosol component. The sources of SO42– were estimated by using the air quality model with the tagged tracer method. The main source of high SO42– concentration varied day-to-day. When the westerly wind was dominant (October 27), the main source was anthropogenic SO2 emissions in China. When the northerly wind prevailed (November 1), the impact of volcanoes in western Japan was significant and the conversion ratio from SO2 to SO42– was lowest, at less than 70%, because of the faster transport. During the latter part of the campaign, the northerly to easterly winds were prominent, and the impacts of Korea, Japan, and ships on SO42– observed at Cape Hedo were also clear. When the contributions from Korea, Japan, and ships were the highest (November 4), the conversion ratio was also the highest, at greater than 95% because of long-range transport. The modeled sources of volcanoes and ship emissions corresponded well with the observed coarse-mode SO42– and V/Mn ratio, respectively. The mutual evaluation of sources from model and observations enable SO42– sources to be estimated with higher confidence.

Keywords: Air quality model; Source apportionment; East Asia; Tagged tracer method

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