Itsushi Uno 1, Kazuo Osada2, Keiya Yumimoto1,3, Zhe Wang1,4, Syuichi Itahashi5, Xiaole Pan4, Yukari Hara1, Shigekazu Yamamoto6, Tomoaki Nishizawa7

  • 1 Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
  • 2 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • 3 Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan
  • 4 Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China
  • 5 Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba 270-1194, Japan
  • 6 Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka 818-0135, Japan
  • 7 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan

Received: November 21, 2016
Revised: February 12, 2017
Accepted: March 2, 2017
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Cite this article:
Uno, I., Osada, K., Yumimoto, K., Wang, Z., Itahashi, S., Pan, X., Hara, Y., Yamamoto, S. and Nishizawa, T. (2017). Importance of Long-Range Nitrate Transport Based on Long-Term Observation and Modeling of Dust and Pollutants over East Asia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 3052-3064.


  • Long-term synergetic fine and coarse mode aerosol observations were analyzed.
  • Numerical model, with dust acid uptake processes, was used for detailed analysis.
  • Majority of fine NO3 was considered as long-range transport (LRT) in winter.
  • Large-scale dust-nitrate outflow from China was confirmed in all dust cases.
  • We showed importance of both anthropogenic NO3 and dust-nitrate LRT.



Long-term synergetic fine and coarse mode aerosol observations were analyzed at 1-h intervals at Fukuoka, Japan, from January to June 2015. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, including dust and sea-salt acid uptake processes, was used for detailed analysis of observation data. Several Asian dust events and long-range anthropogenic aerosol transport events were observed during our analysis period, and the numerical model generally explained the observed time variation for both fine and coarse mode aerosols. We found that (i) the majority of fine mode NO3 can be considered as long-range transport (LRT) outside of Japan during the cold season, and (ii) the peak timing of fine mode NO3 coincided with that of SO4, indicating that both aerosols are controlled by LRT. Also, an observed mass concentration ratio of NO3/SO42– > 0.9 occurred during the cold season, indicating the importance of NO3 as a major contributor to the PM2.5 mass fraction. Finally, we clearly showed that large-scale dust-nitrate outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed in all cases of dust events, indicating that the anthropogenic NOx is converted to dust-nitrate and transported to Japan with dust. These results demonstrate the importance of anthropogenic NO3 LRT during the cold season and dust-nitrate LRT for all dust events (even in June).

Keywords: Dust; Long-range transport; Seasonal variation; Chemical transport model; Nitrate

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