Nicholas Kiprotich Cheruiyot1, Wen-Jhy Lee1, Ping Yan2, John Kennedy Mwangi 1, Lin-Chi Wang 3, Xiang Gao4, Neng-Huei Lin5, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien6

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 2 School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
  • 3 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
  • 4 State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhenjiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
  • 5 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan
  • 6 Department of Cosmetic and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan

Received: October 14, 2016
Revised: November 19, 2016
Accepted: November 19, 2016
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Cite this article:
Cheruiyot, N.K., Lee, W.J., Yan, P., Mwangi, J.K., Wang, L.C., Gao, X., Lin, N.H. and Chang-Chien, G.P. (2016). An Overview of PCDD/F Inventories and Emission Factors from Stationary and Mobile Sources: What We Know and What is Missing. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16: 2965-2988.


  • Integrative and useful information for the PCDD/F emission are provided.
  • Also the feasible directions for both scientific research and environmental management.
  • Suggestions are offered on how to reduce the PCDD/F emission factors.
  • Also suggestions on how to improve representative of PCDD/F emission factors.



This overview attempts to outline what we currently know about the PCDD/F emission inventories and the source categories therein. Besides the best available control techniques, suggestions are offered on how to reduce the PCDD/F emission factors and emission quantity of some important PCDD/F emission sources. The PCDD/F combustion sources can be classified as either stationary or mobile or minimally/uncontrolled combustion sources. The major stationary sources of PCDD/Fs are metal production processes, waste incineration, heat and power plants, and fly ash treatment plant. Crematories, vehicles, residential boilers and stoves are of key concern due to their proximity to residential areas and their relatively lower lying stacks and exhaust gases, which may result in great impact to their surrounding environment.

Moreover, we offered our perspectives on how to improve the quality and representative of the PCDD/F emission factors to attain PCDD/F inventories which correspond more to reality. These points of view include: (1) PCDD/F contributions during start-up procedures of MSWIs should be considered, (2) the sampling times of stack flue gases for EAFs and secondary metal smelters should correspond to whole smelting process stages, (3) longer flue gas sampling time should be executed for power plants, (4) direct exhaust samplings from tailpipes for mobile sources, (5) development of an open burn testing facility that can reflect the real open burning conditions, and (6) long-term sampling techniques like AMESA are suggested to used exclusively for the most contributed PCDD/F stationary sources.

Keywords: PCDD/F inventory; Stationary sources; Mobile sources; Biomass burning; AMESA; Electric arc furnaces

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