Caijia Xu1, Chang-Yu Wu2, Maosheng Yao 1

  • 1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, Engineering School of Sustainable Infrastructure and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

Received: September 16, 2016
Revised: December 6, 2016
Accepted: December 8, 2016
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Cite this article:
Xu, C., Wu, C.Y. and Yao, M. (2017). Fluorescent Bioaerosol Particles Resulting from Human Occupancy with and Without Respirators. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 198-208.


  • Breath-borne bioaerosols of 1.93 ± 1.95× 105 particles m–3 were shown to peak at 1.5 µm.
  • An average emission rate of 2.1 × 106 fluorescent particles person–1 hour–1 was observed.
  • Bioaerosol emission from exhaled breath accounted for about 6% increase in studied room.
  • Bioaerosol shielding efficiencies from human breath by respirator depend on the facial fit.



Airborne transmission of pathogenic aerosols via human breath plays a major role in infectious disease outbreaks in indoor environments. Yet, their bioaerosol emission profiles are still not well quantified. Here, we first studied bioaerosol emission rates of human exhaled breath from 12 healthy subjects, and then evaluated the bioaerosol emissions when wearing two different respirators “Doctor masks” and N95 in a controlled environment (27 m3) using a bioaerosol sensor-ultraviolet aerodynamic particle spectrometer (UV-APS). The human bioaerosol contribution was further confirmed through classroom observation. The results showed that there was a peak around 1.5 µm for the fluorescent particles emitted from humans’ breath. For the controlled environment, the presence of 5 people without wearing masks increased bioaerosol concentration by 107% within 30 min at an average emission rate of 8.4 × 105 fluorescent particles person–1 hour–1 resulting from the occupancy. When wearing N95 masks or “Doctor masks”, bioaerosol increases were observed to be 81% or 31% for the controlled environment, respectively, lower compared to those without masks. In-classroom observation also showed a fluorescent particle concentration increase of about 50%. In all experiments, we observed a decline in PM number concentration. Bioaerosol emission from exhaled breath was calculated to account for about 17% of the increase in the controlled environment. The results here suggest the need for re-evaluating microbial aerosol exposure risks for medical sites that demand high levels of hygiene even while wearing a respirator.

Keywords: Bioaerosols; Exhaled breath; Respiratory masks; Shielding efficiencies; Controlled environment

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