Gopinath Kalaiarasan, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan , Neethu Anitha Sethunath, Sivamoorthy Manoharan

  • Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka Surathkal, Mangalore-575025, India

Received: July 1, 2016
Revised: October 29, 2016
Accepted: January 6, 2017
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Cite this article:
Kalaiarasan, G., Balakrishnan, R.M., Sethunath, N.A. and Manoharan, S. (2017). Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Particles: Influence of Outdoor Particles on Indoor Environment of Schools Using Chemical Mass Balance. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 616-625.


  • First known work in Mangalore to determine PM2.5 particle sources in indoors of schools.
  • Schools nearby the roadways found to have higher concentrations of PM2.5 particles.
  • Five major sources of PM2.5 particles were identified by Chemical Mass Balance.
  • Diesel Emissions found to contribute the major portion of indoor PM2.5.



Children have higher lung function than adults and they spend most of their day time in schools. Also, children studying at schools located in the vicinity of busy roadways are vulnerable to childhood asthma and respiratory disorders. The present study is focused on estimating the sources of PM2.5 particles present in the indoor air quality in schools which are located adjacent to urban and suburban roadways. The indoor PM2.5 samples from all the four schools were collected using fine dust sampler from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. The sampling was carried out for one complete week during various seasons including both working and non-working days. The chemical compositions of the PM2.5 samples were analyzed for certain elements like Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and ions like F, Cl, NO3, PO43–, SO42–, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Na+ using Ion Chromatography (IC). Source apportionment study using Chemical Mass Balance was carried out using the species concentration of the collected samples. The major sources were found to be Paved Road Dust, Soil Dust, Gasoline Vehicle Emissions, Diesel Vehicle Emissions and Marine Source Emissions. Among these, vehicular emissions contribution was found to be higher for the schools located close to roadways rather than the school located at a considerable distance from highway. The difference in source type contribution at each school clearly depicts the difference in nature of location and type of activities in the vicinity of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Chemical Mass Balance; Particle concentration; Receptor modeling; PM2.5; Vehicular emissions

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