Yung-Chen Yao1, Jiun-Horng Tsai 2, I-Ting Wang2, Hsin-Ru Tsai1

  • 1 Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering and Research Center for Climate Change and Environment Quality, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan

Received: May 2, 2016
Revised: August 21, 2016
Accepted: October 25, 2016
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Cite this article:
Yao, Y.C., Tsai, J.H., Wang, I.T. and Tsai, H.R. (2017). Investigating Criteria and Organic Air pollutant Emissions from Motorcycles by Using Various Ethanol-Gasoline Blends. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 17: 167-175.


  • 125 cm3 fuel-injected motorcycles without a catalytic converter were tested.
  • Use E15, E20, and E30 reduces the emissions of CO, THC, and BTEX in FI motorcycle.
  • Acetaldehyde emission is dramatically increased while using ethanol-gasoline.
  • FI motorcycle showed more emission reductions of air pollutants than carburetor one.



Studies on the correlation between ethanol-gasoline blends and pollutant emissions of small engine motorcycles are scant. This study examined the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends, containing various ethanol contents, on air pollutant emissions from two four-stroke fuel-injection motorcycles without engine adjustment. Three test blends, separately containing 15 (E15), 20 (E20), and 30 vol% (E30) ethanol in gasoline, were used to power the test motorcycles. Commercial unleaded gasoline was used as the reference fuel (as RF). The motorcycles were tested on a chassis dynamometer by using the Economic Commission for Europe test cycle. The target pollutants investigated in this study included criteria pollutants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and six species of organic air toxics. The results revealed that the emissions of CO, THC, total VOCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic groups reduced when the ethanol-gasoline blends were used to fuel the motorcycles. E30 demonstrated approximately 1.2-fold increases in carbonyl group emissions compared with RF. Emissions of the target air toxics demonstrated a reduction potential on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), but increased the emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde by 65% and 330%, respectively. Results also showed that the emission changes from fuel-injected motorcycle were generally smaller than the value of carburetor motorcycle. Fuel injection engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends may lead to emission reductions to CO, THC, and BTEX.

Keywords: Fuel-injection motorcycle; Small capacity engine; Renewable energy; Volatile organic compounds; Organic air toxics

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