Tzu-Ting Yang 1, Shaw-Tao Lin2, Ruei-Hao Shie3, Chen-Kung Tseng1, Chun-Hung Ku1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu 30015, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Taichung City 43301, Taiwan
  • 3 Green Energy and Environmental Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30015, Taiwan

Received: November 29, 2015
Revised: February 19, 2016
Accepted: March 30, 2016
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Cite this article:
Yang, T.T., Lin, S.T., Shie, R.H., Tseng, C.K. and Ku, C.H. (2016). Characterization of Volatile Organic Pollutant Emissions from Smoldering Mosquito Coils Containing Various Atomic Hydrogen/Carbon Ratios. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16: 2570-2580.


  • Emissions from burning mosquito coil were measured by a self-designed chamber system.
  • Burning mosquito coils produce human carcinogens including benzene and 1,3-butadiene.
  • VOC emissions were significantly influenced by the C, H and O contents of coils.
  • Burning coil with a lower H/C ratio and oxygen content minimized total VOC emission.



Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratios in different relative humidity were examined. The concentrations of individual VOCs were determined using a preconcentrator-gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and a flame ion detector (FID). Up to 72 VOCs were found. It is noteworthy that benzene and 1,3-butadiene, human carcinogenic substances, were emitted by all tested mosquito coils during burning. The five types of mosquito coils studied had atomic H/C ratios ranging from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total VOC emission rates and factors of 7,295.72–14,308.17 µg hr–1 and 3,192.78–6,835.03 µg g–1, respectively. VOC emissions were significantly influenced by the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen contents of coils. According to the analyses of VOC emissions, mosquito coils containing the lowest H/C ratio, a low oxygen content, with suitable additives such as CaCO3 are recommended for minimizing total VOC emission.

Keywords: Mosquito coils; Smoldering; Volatile organic compounds; Emission

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