Arumugam Sakunthalai Ramadhas, Hongming Xu , Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian

  • School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom

Received: November 3, 2015
Revised: April 22, 2016
Accepted: June 11, 2016
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Cite this article:
Ramadhas, A.S., Xu, H., Liu, D. and Tian, J. (2016). Reducing Cold Start Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engine at Cold Ambient Temperatures. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 16: 3330-3337.


  • Intake air heating strategy on diesel engine cold startability at –7°C.

  • Instantaneous and cumulative emissions during the cold start and idling.

  • Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in emissions with intake air heating.

  • Intake air heating reduced the exhaust particle number, size and mass.



Cold start performance of diesel engines is determined by engine design, fuel type, fuel injection strategies, lubricant and ambient temperature conditions. Prevailing emissions legislation regarding low temperature emission tests applicable for gasoline vehicles is likely to be implemented to diesel vehicles. The present research work investigates the effects of intake air heating on a Euro 5 diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission (gaseous and particulate emissions) characteristics during the cold start followed by idling at cold ambient conditions. Heating of intake air entering the engine at cold ambient temperature conditions improved fuel combustion as well as reduced the cranking period and improved the fuel economy. More than 50% reduction in HC and 17% reduction in NOx emissions were achieved by intake air heating. Number count of accumulation mode particulates were higher during cold start compared to idle operation for all the temperature conditions. Intake air heating decreased the particulate number and size that led to reduction in total particulate mass by higher than 50% and 75% during cold start and idle respectively. The intake air heating strategy improved the cold start performance of the diesel engine at cold ambient temperature conditions and thereby would reduce the overall driving cycle emissions.

Keywords: Cold start; Particulates; Emissions; Diesel engines

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