Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Shui-Jen Chen 1, Kuo-Lin Huang1, Hso-Chi Chaung2, Wen-Yinn Lin3, Chih-Chung Lin1, Tsai-Yuan Wu1, Cheng-Hsien Yang1, Juei-Yu Chiu1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung County, 91201, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung County, 91201, Taiwan
  • 3 Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei City, 10608, Taiwan

Received: October 26, 2015
Revised: November 21, 2015
Accepted: November 21, 2015
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Cite this article:
Tsai, J.H., Chen, S.J., Huang, K.L., Chaung, H.C., Lin, W.Y., Lin, C.C., Wu, T.Y., Yang, C.H. and Chiu, J.Y. (2015). Biological Toxicities of Exhausts from a Diesel-Generator Fueled with Water-Containing Acetone/Butanol and Waste-Edible-Oil-Biodiesel Blends. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 2668-2675.


  • Cytotoxicities of organic-solvent extracts of generator emissions were studied.
  • Bio-dieselhol with added acetone/butanol (A/B) reduced the U937 cell mortality.
  • The cell mortality decreased as the ratio of added water-containing A/B increased.



In this investigation, conventional diesel (D), 1–30 vol% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (WEO-biodiesel, (W), 1–3 vol% pure/water-containing acetone (A/A'' (5% water content)) or 1–50 vol% butanol (B/B' (2% water content)/B'' (5% water content) were tested as fuels and their effects on the cytotoxicity of emissions from a generator at 3 kW load were studied. Human male single cells (U937) and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method were used to test the cell toxicity of gas- and particle-phase samples (which were obtained by organic-solvent extraction). The results revealed that adding 1–3% acetone/water-containing acetone to bio-dieselhols reduced the mortality of U937 that were exposed to exhaust emissions organic-solvent extraction of to U937 when the generator was loaded at 3 kW. Adding more acetone/water-containing acetone further reduced the mortality of cells that were exposed to the emission gas from organic solvent extraction Compared with water-free butanol, using water-containing butanol (2% or 5%) added WEO-biodiesel further reduced the cytotoxicity (to U937) of organic solvent extracts from the emissions. The mortality of U937 decreased as the added butanol percentage increased in the range of 10−30% but increased as the added butanol percentage was increased to 40% or 50%. Therefore, the water-containing and -free acetone/butanol blending could reduce the toxicity of diesel-engine exhausts.

Keywords: Butanol; Biodiesel; Acetone; Water-containing; Cytotoxicity

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