Hsi-Hsien Yang , Kuei-Ting Lee, Yueh-Shu Hsieh, Shao-Wei Luo, Ru-Jyun Huang

  • Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufeng, Taichung 413, Taiwan

Received: June 9, 2015
Revised: June 21, 2015
Accepted: June 29, 2015
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2015.06.0398  

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Cite this article:
Yang, H.H., Lee, K.T., Hsieh, Y.S., Luo, S.W. and Huang, R.J. (2015). Emission Characteristics and Chemical Compositions of both Filterable and Condensable Fine Particulate from Steel Plants. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 1672-1680. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2015.06.0398


  • Filterable and condensable PM2.5 emissions from steel plants are measured.
  • Most measured ions and metals are distributed in condensable PM2.5.
  • The measured data can be used to estimate the real contributions to the atmosphere.



Steel production is an important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, both filterable and condensable fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from an electric arc furnace (EAF) and four integrated iron and steel plants were measured. Chemical compositions including water soluble ions and metal elements of these two types of PM2.5 were analyzed. The results show that filterable PM2.5 concentrations emitted from sintering, coke making, blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and EAF are 1.01, 0.37, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.28 mg/Nm3, respectively. Sintering has the highest filterable PM2.5 emission concentrations. Condensable PM2.5 concentrations emitted from the above processes are 65.3, 89.7, 3.84, 1.32 and 2.02 mg/Nm3, respectively, which are much higher than filterable PM2.5. K, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations are high in filterable PM2.5 for sintering process, which is attributed to the feedstocks of recycled materials. High sulfur content of the feedstocks results in high concentrations of SO42– for all the test plants. In addition to Fe, the emissions of Pb, Zn and Sn are high for EAF, which is due to the complexity of the recycled steel feedstock for EAF. SO42– is the highest emission ion for sinter process and coke making. For blast furnace, BOF and EAF, however, Na+, K+ and Cl are the predominated ions. For metal elements, concentrations of Na and K are highest for all the plants, which might be caused by their high potential of vaporization.

Keywords: Chemical composition; Stationary emission source; Filterable PM2.5; Condensable PM2.5; Iron and steel plant

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