Shamsiah Abdul Rahman 1, Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah1, Md Suhaimi Elias1, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim1, Azian Hashim1, Shakirah Shukor1, Wee Boon Siong2, Abdul Khalik Wood3

  • 1 Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, Unversity of Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Unversity of Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Received: April 10, 2015
Revised: June 21, 2015
Accepted: September 24, 2015
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Cite this article:
Rahman, S.A., Hamzah, M.S., Elias, M.S., Salim, N.A.A., Hashim, A., Shukor, S., Siong, W.B. and Wood, A.K. (2015). A Long Term Study on Characterization and Source Apportionment of Particulate Pollution in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 2291-2304.


  • Air particulate pollution in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Identification of local sources using positive matrix factorization (PMF).
  • Five major sources of particulate in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur.
  • Tracing source area of smoke trans-boundary events using the HYSPLIT model.



Samples of airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 were collected using a Gent stacked filter sampler at an urban site, Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur between January 2002–December 2011. The samples were analyzed for their elemental composition and black carbon content by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and light absorption, respectively. The annual average for PM2.5, PM10–2.5 and PM10 ranged from 21 to 35, 18 to 26 and 44 to 56 µg m–3, respectively. Factor analysis method and the Positive Matrix Factorisation (EPA PMF3) technique were also applied to the fine fraction data set in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contributions to the ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Klang Valley. A five factor PMF solution was found for PM2.5 particulate matter. The sources identified were; motor vehicles, industry, smoke/biomass burning, secondary sulphate and soil. It was found that the primary source of haze air particulate matter was locally generated mostly from vehicular emissions which contribute about 35% of the PM2.5 mass. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Intergrated Trajectory (HYSPLT) model was also used to explore possible long range transport of pollution. Smoke trans-boundary events were identified based on fine potassium from the data base in 2004, 2006 and 2008.

Keywords: Elemental composition; Klang Valley; Positive Matrix Factorization; Airborne particulate

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