Wangki Yuen1, Ke Du2, Sotiria Koloutsou-Vakakis1, Mark J. Rood 1, Byung J. Kim1,3, Michael R. Kemme3, Ram A. Hashmonay4, Chad Meister5

  • 1 University of Illinois, 205 N. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  • 2 University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
  • 3 ERDC-CERL, 2902 Newmark Dr., Champaign, IL 61826, USA
  • 4 Atmosfir Optics Ltd., 8801 Fast Park Dr., Suite 301, Raleigh, NC 27617, USA
  • 5 Fort Carson, 7335 Womack St., Fort Carson, CO 80913, USA

Received: December 5, 2014
Revised: February 25, 2015
Accepted: February 28, 2015
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Cite this article:
Yuen, W., Du, K., Koloutsou-Vakakis, S., Rood, M.J., Kim, B.J., Kemme, M.R., Hashmonay, R.A. and Meister, C. (2015). Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions to the Atmosphere from Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles in a Desert Region by Hybrid-Optical Remote Sensing. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 15: 1613-1626.


  • Hybrid optical remote sensing was developed to determine fugitive PM emissions.
  • Fugitive PM emissions were quantified for vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.
  • A power law dependence of PM emission factor on vehicle speed was determined.
  • Results extend AP-42 emission factor scope to more vehicle types and masses.



A hybrid-optical remote sensing (hybrid-ORS) method was developed to quantify mass emission factors (EFs) for fugitive particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). In-situ range-resolved extinction coefficient and concurrent point measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations are used to quantify two-dimensional (2-D) PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration profiles. Integration of each 2-D mass concentration profile with wind data, event duration, and source type provides the corresponding fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 EFs. This method was used to quantify EFs for fugitive PM10 and PM2.5 emitted from tracked and wheeled vehicles travelling on unpaved roads in a desert region. The EFs for tracked vehicles ranged from 206 g/km to 1,738 g/km for PM10 and from 78 g/km to 684 g/km for PM2.5, depending on vehicle speed and vehicle type. The EFs for the wheeled vehicle ranged from 223 g/km to 4,339 g/km for PM10 and from 44 g/km to 1,627 g/km for PM2.5. Field implementation of the hybrid-ORS method demonstrates that the method can rapidly capture multiple profiles of the PM plumes and is well suited for improved quantification of fugitive PM EFs from vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.

Keywords: PM10; PM2.5; LIDAR; AP-42; Flux tower method

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