San-Chyi Chang1, Ya-Fen Wang 2, Sheng-Jie You2, Yi-Ming Kuo3, Cheng-Hsien Tsai4, Lin-Chi Wang5, Po-Yen Hsu2

  • 1 Department of Applied Mathematics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, 320, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 717, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
  • 5 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan

Received: October 5, 2013
Revised: January 7, 2013
Accepted: January 7, 2013
Download Citation: ||  

  • Download: PDF

Cite this article:
Chang, S.C., Wang, Y.F., You, S.J., Kuo, Y.M., Tsai, C.H., Wang, L.C. and Hsu, P.Y. (2013). Toxicity Evaluation of Fly Ash by Microtox®. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 13: 1002-1008.



Fly ash samples from a cooling tower were extracted after incinerating plastic solid waste (PSW) and organic liquid waste (OLW) by n-Hexane or dichloromethane/n-Hexane mixtures to evaluate the toxicity. The metal and PCDD/Fs were analyzed by ICP OES and HRGC/HRMS, respectively. The toxicity of the extracted fly ash was evaluated by Microtox®. The results showed the environmental risk factor (ERF) of Hg in PSW fly ash was the highest compared to other metals, by more than 60%. Additionally, the acute toxicity tests of the fly ash showed that dichloromethane/n-hexane extracts were all very toxic, except for the PSW-1 obtained through Soxhlet extraction following the column clean-up procedure. The n-Hexane extracts for OLW-1 obtained through Soxhlet extraction following the column clean-up procedure were extremely toxic. There were no significant relationships among the concentrations of the regulated heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn), PCDD/Fs concentration and the TU values in the toxicity test. Furthermore, the results of the statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the results of the Microtox test with regard to the solvents, solutes and various extraction methods. However, it is remains a complicated process to differentiate between the various compounds in order to produce accurate results with regard to acute toxicity in the fly ash, and thus this issue warrants further investigation.

Keywords: Toxicity; Extraction; Fly ash; Microtox test

Share this article with your colleagues 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

77st percentile
Powered by
   SCImago Journal & Country Rank

2022 Impact Factor: 4.0
5-Year Impact Factor: 3.4

Call for Papers for the special issue on: "Carbonaceous Aerosols in the Atmosphere"

Aerosol and Air Quality Research partners with Publons

CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit
CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal that promotes submissions of high-quality research and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world. We use cookies on this website to personalize content to improve your user experience and analyze our traffic. By using this site you agree to its use of cookies.