Raghu Betha, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

  • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, E1A-07-03, 117576, Singapore

Received: August 9, 2012
Revised: October 23, 2012
Accepted: October 23, 2012
Download Citation: ||https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2012.08.0208  

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Cite this article:
Betha, R. and Balasubramanian, R. (2013). Particulate Emissions from Commercial Handheld Sparklers: Evaluation of Physical Characteristics and Emission Rates. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 13: 301-307. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2012.08.0208


 

ABSTRACT


Ground level fireworks, such as sparklers, are commonly used by children during festive occasions and celebrations. Airborne particulate matter (PM) emissions from these fireworks are of serious health concern. However, to date no information is available on the PM emission characteristics from sparklers and their emission rates. In this study, three commonly used sparklers, namely, low smoke sparklers (LSS), colored sparklers (CS) and whistling sparklers (WS), were investigated for their PM emissions and emission rates. It was observed that WS (4.45 × 1011 s–1 or 3.24 × 1010 g–1) had higher emission rates compared to CS (2.9 × 1011 s–1 or 1.64 × 1010 g–1) and LSS (7 × 1010 s–1 or 1.68 × 109 g–1). A relatively large number of nanoparticles (NPs) were emitted from their burning. About 83% of PM emitted by WS and CS were in the nano size range (aerodynamic diameter (AED) < 50 nm) whereas LSS had 62% of total particles in the nano size range. In addition, particle deposition fractions into the lung were also estimated. It was found that CS and WS had higher deposition efficiency compared to that of LSS.


Keywords: Particle number concentration; Sparkler emissions; Emission rates; Deposition fraction


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