Bilkis A. Begum1, Swapan K. Biswas1, Andreas Markwitz2, Philip K. Hopke 3

  • 1 Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2 GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • 3 Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

Received: July 31, 2010
Revised: July 31, 2010
Accepted: July 31, 2010
Download Citation: ||  

Cite this article:
Begum, B.A., Biswas, S.K., Markwitz, A. and Hopke, P.K. (2010). Identification of Sources of Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 10: 345-353.



In Bangladesh, the ambient air within Dhaka city is highly polluted by motor vehicle and brick kiln emissions. In addition, meteorological conditions during the winter cause increases in the fine particulate matter concentrations by factors of 4 to 5 fold compared to the rainy season. To understand the contribution of possible pollution sources, compositional data for both the coarse and fine fractions samples collected between May 2001 and March 2005 have been analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results were compared with the previous source apportionment results. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) plots were developed for each source using local wind data to explore the directionality of local sources. Back trajectory ensemble methods were used to identify potential source regions and pathways of transboundary transport of PM2.2 apportioned sources. The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) domain extended around the receptor site in Dhaka (23.77°N, 90.38°E) over the range from 1.5° to 42.5°N and 56.5° to 110.5°E. The PSCF results are compared to the conditional probability function (CPF) analyses that use 3 hour average local wind directional data to determine the likely directions for the sources. Both PSCF and CPF help to identify the potential source locations, but on different distance scales. These analyses demonstrate that coarse particles are dominated by local sources. However, local and regional source contributed to the elevated fine PM levels in Dhaka. Thus, regional control efforts will be required in addition to local initiatives to improve the air quality in mega cities in this region like Dhaka.

Keywords: PMF; PSCF; CPF; Back trajectory

Share this article with your colleagues 


Subscribe to our Newsletter 

Aerosol and Air Quality Research has published over 2,000 peer-reviewed articles. Enter your email address to receive latest updates and research articles to your inbox every second week.

77st percentile
Powered by
   SCImago Journal & Country Rank

2022 Impact Factor: 4.0
5-Year Impact Factor: 3.4

Aerosol and Air Quality Research partners with Publons

CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit
CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit

Aerosol and Air Quality Research (AAQR) is an independently-run non-profit journal that promotes submissions of high-quality research and strives to be one of the leading aerosol and air quality open-access journals in the world. We use cookies on this website to personalize content to improve your user experience and analyze our traffic. By using this site you agree to its use of cookies.