Pavel Moravec 1, Jiří Smolík1, Helmi Keskinen2, Jyrki M. Mäkelä2, Valeri V. Levdansky3

  • 1 Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojová 135, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic
  • 2 Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
  • 3 A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 15. P. Brovka Str., Minsk 220072, Belarus

Received: November 30, 2007
Revised: November 30, 2007
Accepted: November 30, 2007
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Cite this article:
Moravec, P., Smolík, J., Keskinen, H., Mäkelä, J.M. and Levdansky, V.V. (2007). Vapor Phase Synthesis of Zirconia Fine Particles from Zirconium Tetra-Tert-Butoxide. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 7: 563-577.



Zirconia fine particles were synthesized by thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of zirconium tetra-tert-butoxide in an externally heated tube flow reactor with two inlet section arrangements - long or short inlet nozzle. Particle production and characteristics were studied in dependence on reactor temperature, precursor concentration, and flow rates through the reactor and the nozzle. Particle production was investigated by scanning mobility particle sizer, morphology of particles by scanning/transmission electron microscopy, crystallinity by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction and composition of particles by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The particle production and morphology were affected most of all by the chemistry of precursor decomposition and the inlet section arrangement. The influence of remaining parameters was less significant. Particle formation mechanisms in the reactor volume and on the reactor and nozzle walls are also discussed.

Keywords: MOCVD; nanoparticle synthesis; tube flow reactor

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