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High Loadings of Water-Soluble Oxalic Acid and Related Compounds in PM2.5 Aerosols in Eastern Central India: Influence of Biomass Burning and Photochemical Processing

Category: Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry

Volume: 19 | Issue: 12 | Pages: 2625-2644
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.10.0543
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To cite this article:
Deshmukh, D.K., Kawamura, K., Gupta, T., Haque, M.M., Zhang, Y.L., Singh, D.K. and Tsai, Y.I. (2019). High Loadings of Water-Soluble Oxalic Acid and Related Compounds in PM2.5 Aerosols in Eastern Central India: Influence of Biomass Burning and Photochemical Processing. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 19: 2625-2644. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.10.0543.

Dhananjay K. Deshmukh1, Kimitaka Kawamura1, Tarun Gupta2, Md. Mozammel Haque3, Yan-Lin Zhang3, Dharmendra K. Singh1,4, Ying I. Tsai 5

  • 1 Chubu Institute for Advanced Studies, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501, Japan
  • 2 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India
  • 3 Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • 4 Institute of Research on Catalysis and the Environment of Lyon (IRCELYON), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Villeurbanne 69100, France
  • 5 Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan City 71710, Taiwan

Highlights

  • We measured water-soluble organic compounds in PM2.5 in eastern central India.
  • We detected the high loading of oxalic acid in PM2.5 in eastern central India.
  • Biomass burning and photochemical processes was the major source of oxalic acid.

Abstract

Water-soluble organic compounds are important constituents of atmospheric aerosols and have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify atmospheric processes. Fine aerosol samples (PM2.5) were collected at Ambikapur (23.1°N and 83.2°E) in eastern central India from March to June 2017. The samples were analyzed for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2–C12), glyoxylic acid (ωC2), glyoxal (Gly), methylglyoxal (MeGly), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble OC (WSOC). Oxalic acid (C2) was detected as the most abundant species, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Temporal variation in concentrations of C2 diacid and related compounds was pronounced from early to late April when biomass burning (BB) was dominant in eastern central India. Strong positive correlations of C2 diacid and related compounds with levoglucosan (r = 0.83–0.99) further demonstrate that organic aerosols (OAs) were affected by BB in eastern central India. Strong positive correlations of C2 with saturated diacids (C3–C9: r = 0.78–0.97), ωC2 (r = 0.98), Gly (r = 0.96) and MeGly (r = 0.84) suggest that their sources and formation processes were similar and oxalic acid might be produced via the photochemical degradation of precursor compounds. The relatively high ratios of WSOC to OC (avg. 0.69) and C3 to C4 diacid (avg. 0.95) suggest that water-soluble OAs were photochemically processed during the campaign. The total water-soluble organic compounds detected in Ambikapur PM2.5 samples accounted for an average of 1.9% (1.1–3.1%) of OC. Our results demonstrate that BB and photochemical processing caused high levels of water-soluble organic compounds over eastern central India.

Keywords

Water-soluble organic aerosols Dicarboxylic acids Secondary formation Photochemical production Biomass burning emission


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