In this study, the emission characteristics of primary air pollutants (PM, SO2 and NOx) and trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb) were comprehensively investigated based on the field measurements of nine ultra-low emission (ULE) coal-fired industrial boilers and three non-ULE coal-fired industrial boilers. The concentrations, release ratios and relative enrichment factors (REFs) of trace elements in both coal and bottom ash were obtained, which is constructive to know the release and enrichment features of trace elements from the ULE coal-fired industrial boilers. Furthermore, the influence of atmospheric pollutant control devices (APCDs) on the emission concentrations, removal efficiency, as well as the emission factors (EFs) of primary air pollutants and trace elements were analyzed. The average release ratios of Hg, Cr, Pb and As from coal were 96.28%, 59.95%, 65.34% and 84.85%, respectively. The average overall removal efficiency of PM, SO2, NOx, Hg, Cr, Pb and As for APCD configurations in the ULE coal-fired industrial boilers in this study were 99.5%, 95.9%, 81.0%, 95.6%, 95.6%, 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively. The NOx EFs of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid of selective noncatalytic reduction and selective catalytic reduction (SNCR-SCR) in the ULE coal-fired industrial boilers were 5.5 × 10 -1 kg t-1 and 4.9 × 10 -1 kg t-1, respectively. Overall, the removal efficiency of NOx and Hg for ULE coal-fired boilers were 2.1 and 2.8 times higher than non-ULE coal-fired industrial boilers, respectively, which is mainly caused by the higher denitrification efficiency, higher dedust efficiency and higher liquid/gas (L/G) ratio of desulfurization of ULE coal-fired boilers.