PM2.5 fractions were collected by re-suspension of the ashes derived from the incineration processes of peanut straw (PS), wheat straw (WS), garbage-fired power plant (GFPP), domestic garbage for volume reduction (DG), and workshop of cable combustion for metal reclamation (WCC) for the analysis of 16 PAHs and 26 elements to obtain the information about their composition profiles, toxicity of PAHs, and exposure risks posed by heavy metals (HMs) and As. GFPP possessed the highest Ʃ16PAHs, while the lowest value occurred at DG. HMW-PAHs dominated in GFPP, while LMW-PAHs were predominant in PS and WS. BaP was the top PAH in GFPP and GFPP possessed the highest TEQ values based on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and BaP associated TEFs, and followed by WCC > DG > WS > PS. Except for DG vs. WCC, the PAH-, and HM vs. As-profiles between any 2 out of 5 sources were different based on higher coefficients of divergence than 0.3. The sum of 10 HMs and As (∑11IEs) dominated in WCC due to high contents of Cu, Zn, and Pb, and followed by GFPP > DG > WS > PS. The most enriched HMs were Sb, Cu, and Pb for WCC, Sn for GFPP, and Cd for both GFPP and DG. The integrated carcinogenic risks (CRs) for children posed by both dermal adsorption (Derm) and ingestion (ING) were higher than those for adults. The CRs for children from all the 5 sources exceeded the acceptable level of 1 × 10–4. The non-carcinogenic risks (NCRs) for children posed by both ING and DERM for 5 sources were much higher than those for adults. The NCRs for children posed by ING significantly exceeded 1, which were 63.8, 10.9, 4.11, 3.58, and 2.19 for WCC, GFPP, WS, DG, and PS.