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Emission of Carbonyl Compounds from Cooking Oil Fumes in the Night Market Areas

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 19 | Issue: 7 | Pages: 1566-1578
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.06.0289
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Danielle E. Que1, How-Ran Chao 2,3, Yi-Chyun Hsu 4, Kangping Cui5, Shida Chen5, Lemmuel L. Tayo6, Rachelle D. Arcega6, Ying-I Tsai7, I-Cheng Lu2, Lin-Chi Wang8,9,10, Li-Hao Young11, Kwong-Leung J. Yu12, Chane-Yu Lai13, Wen-Che Hou1, Sheng-Lun Lin8,9,10

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 2 Emerging Compounds Research Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 3 Institute of Food Safety Management, College of Agriculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan
  • 5 School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 246011, China
  • 6 School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering and Sciences, Mapúa University, Intramuros, Manila 1002, Philippines
  • 7 Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
  • 8 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 9 Center for Environmental Toxin and Emerging-Contaminant Research, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 10 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 11 Department of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
  • 12 Superintendent Office, Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung 90059, Taiwan
  • 13 Department of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Health Care and Management, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan


  • Formaldehyde was the most dominant carbonyl emitted in cooking oil fumes (CFs).
  • Carbonyl concentrations varied with factors like cooking style and food type used.
  • Addition of sauce contributed greatly to the high emission factor of carbonyls.
  • Cancer and non-cancer risks of all CF samples exceeded the acceptable criteria.
  • Grilling and frying of meat demonstrated the highest cancer and non-cancer risks.


Cooking oil fumes (CF) coming from night market stalls exhaust contain substantial amounts of air pollutants such as carbonyl compounds that may contribute to outdoor air pollution and may have adverse health effects on the Taiwanese population. Carbonyl emission characteristics depend on several factors, which include but are not limited to, the cooking style and food material being used. The current study evaluated carbonyl compound emissions from two scenarios: a standard kitchen cooking classroom with a stack gas tunnel and night market food stalls. The different cooking styles and food types cooked using a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, such as grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), mixed barbecue with sauce (MBS), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), fried Taiwanese chicken nuggets (FN) in the kitchen cooking classroom, and grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), and fried steak (FS) in the night market were evaluated for carbonyl carbon emissions. OM from the kitchen classroom and GCS from the night market showed the highest mean total carbonyl compound concentrations (1850 ± 682 ppb and 1840 ppb). Formaldehyde was found to be the most predominant carbonyl compound, with contribution percentages ranging from 70.9–99.58% of the total carbonyl emission factors in CFs. Grilled vegetables with sauce had the highest emission factor magnitude of 274 µg kg–1 wt. Factors such as the addition of sauce and grilling were also observed to increase carbonyl compound emissions. Corresponding health risks of carbonyl compounds in CFs for the night market vendors were also assessed. All values for cancer risk (R) were above the standard R value for workplace exposure, and HQ values were all greater than 1, suggesting a high risk for adverse health effects. Although our reported values were relatively high due to our sampling conditions, our study was first to be conducted in Taiwan and holds an important contribution to the global existing data of carbonyl compound emissions.


Cooking oil fumes Carbonyl compounds Health risks Air pollutants Night market

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