Cooking oil fumes (CF) coming from night market stalls exhaust contain substantial amounts of air pollutants such as carbonyl compounds that may contribute to outdoor air pollution and may have adverse health effects on the Taiwanese population. Carbonyl emission characteristics depend on several factors, which include but are not limited to, the cooking style and food material being used. The current study evaluated carbonyl compound emissions from two scenarios: a standard kitchen cooking classroom with a stack gas tunnel and night market food stalls. The different cooking styles and food types cooked using a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, such as grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), mixed barbecue with sauce (MBS), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), fried Taiwanese chicken nuggets (FN) in the kitchen cooking classroom, and grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), and fried steak (FS) in the night market were evaluated for carbonyl carbon emissions. OM from the kitchen classroom and GCS from the night market showed the highest mean total carbonyl compound concentrations (1850 ± 682 ppb and 1840 ppb). Formaldehyde was found to be the most predominant carbonyl compound, with contribution percentages ranging from 70.9–99.58% of the total carbonyl emission factors in CFs. Grilled vegetables with sauce had the highest emission factor magnitude of 274 µg kg–1 wt. Factors such as the addition of sauce and grilling were also observed to increase carbonyl compound emissions. Corresponding health risks of carbonyl compounds in CFs for the night market vendors were also assessed. All values for cancer risk (R) were above the standard R value for workplace exposure, and HQ values were all greater than 1, suggesting a high risk for adverse health effects. Although our reported values were relatively high due to our sampling conditions, our study was first to be conducted in Taiwan and holds an important contribution to the global existing data of carbonyl compound emissions.