Articles online

Vertical Variation of Carbonaceous Aerosols with in the PM2.5 Fraction in Bangkok, Thailand

Category: Urban Air Quality

Volume: 20 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 43-52
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.04.0192

Export Citation:  RIS | BibTeX

To cite this article:
Choomanee, P., Bualert, S., Thongyen, T., Salao, S., Szymanski, W.W. and Rungratanaubon, T. (2020). Vertical Variation of Carbonaceous Aerosols with in the PM2.5 Fraction in Bangkok, Thailand. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 43-52. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.04.0192.

Parkpoom Choomanee1, Surat Bualert 1, Thunyapat Thongyen2, Supannika Salao3, Wladyslaw W. Szymanski1,4, Thitima Rungratanaubon1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • 2 Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Faculty of Environment, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • 3 Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand
  • 4 Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria


  • Vertical measurement of PM2.5 up to the height of 110 m above the ground.
  • Changes of OC & EC fractions within PM2.5 with height above the ground.
  • OC & EC can constitute up to 50% of PM2.5 in terms of mass concentration.
  • Backward trajectories indicate PM-contributions vs. geographical direction.


Asian megacities are undergoing rapid population and infrastructure growth, which is resulting in significant air quality problems linked to atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5). This study focuses on characterizing carbonaceous aerosols in an urban area of Bangkok, Thailand. The Microclimate and Air Pollutants Monitoring tower is located on the edge of Kasetsart University campus and was used to perform vertical measurements. Mass concentration data were collected using area dust monitors (ADR1500) at different levels above the ground (30 m, 75 m, and 110 m) during two time periods, daytime (08:00–19:00) and nighttime (20:00–07:00), throughout the monsoon season in 2015. All relevant micrometeorological parameters were simultaneously monitored. Backward air mass trajectories were calculated using HYSPLIT to assess the possible external pollution contributions. The thermal optical transmittance (TOT) method following the NIOSH 870 protocol was used to determine amounts of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in samples. A data analysis showed average PM2.5 values at observation heights of 30 m, 75 m, and 110 m of 6.21 ± 2.45, 8.12 ± 3.65, and 9.03 ± 3.93 µg m–3, respectively; corresponding OC concentrations of 4.13 ± 2.65, 4.01 ± 4.07, and 4.11 ± 3.58 µg m–3, respectively, and EC concentrations of 1.02 ± 0.84, 1.07 ± 0.95, and 0.50 ± 0.70 µg m–3, respectively. The results show distinct gradients of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 with increasing elevation in contract with the OC and EC concentrations which decrease with height.


Urban aerosols Carbonaceous species Fine particles Vertical distribution

Related Article

Particle Mass Concentrations and Number Size Distributions in 40 Homes in Germany: Indoor-to-outdoor Relationships, Diurnal and Seasonal Variation

Jiangyue Zhao, Wolfram Birmili, Birgit Wehner, Anja Daniels, Kay Weinhold, Lina Wang, Maik Merkel, Simonas Kecorius, Thomas Tuch, Ulrich Franck, Tareq Hussein, Alfred Wiedensohler
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.09.0444

Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Airborne Metal Pollution near Selected Iron and Steelmaking Industrial Areas in China

Xiaoteng Zhou , Vladimir Strezov, Yijiao Jiang, Xiaoxia Yang, Jing He, Tim Evans
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.10.0552