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Characteristics of PM2.5-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from a Diesel Generator Using Waste Cooking Oil-based Biodiesel Blends

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 18 | Issue: 10 | Pages: 2583-2590
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.08.0310
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Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Shui-Jen Chen 1, Po-Min Li2, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien3,4, Kuo-Lin Huang1, Cheng-Hung Tsai1, Chi-Ying Hsieh1, Chih-Chung Lin1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Biomechatronics Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 3 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Cosmetics and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan

Highlights

PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound POPs from an off-road diesel engine generator were studied.
WCO-based biodiesel can effectively reduce the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound POPs.
The recycling WCO-based biodiesel are more environmentally friendly fuels.


Abstract

This study investigates fine particulate matter (PM2.5) bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from a diesel generator fueled with three waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-biodiesel) blends (W0 (pure diesel), W20 (WCO-biodiesel/diesel = 20%/80% (v/v)), and W40). These POPs are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Experimental results indicate that the mass concentrations of PM2.5-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the engine exhaust are 2.15–3.65, 16.7–35.4, 25.8–46.5 and 303–440 pg Nm–3, respectively, at 1.5–3.0 kW loads for using W0, while the corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the above PM2.5-bound pollutants are 0.282–0.527, 0.038–0.051 and 0.064–0.093 pg WHO2005-TEQ Nm–3, respectively (excluding PBDEs, which still have no toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for TEQ calculation). Using W20 and W40 reduced the mass and TEQ emission concentrations of PM2.5-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in comparison with W0. The reductions of mass concentrations in exhausted PM2.5 were in the order PBDEs >> PBDD/Fs > PCBs > PCDD/Fs, while the decrease in toxic concentration followed the order PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs > PCBs. Thus, adding WCO-biodiesel to the fuel mixture in generator engines lowers the adverse effects of PM2.5 emissions on the environment and human health.

Keywords

PM2.5 Biodiesel PCDD/Fs PCBs PBDD/Fs PBDEs


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