Black carbon concentrations are closely related to global warming. To characterize the atmospheric aerosols in Chungcheong Province, Korea, we measured the concentrations of black carbon for about eight months (September 2015–April 2016) and compared them with PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations as well as various meteorological parameters (e.g., wind velocity and wind direction). We used a multi-angle absorption photometer to measure the black carbon; the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, wind velocity, and wind direction were obtained from local monitoring stations. The highest and lowest PM10, PM2.5, and BC concentrations were observed in spring and fall, respectively. The high concentrations in spring and winter were likely due to the dominance of westerly winds, which transported pollutants, whereas the low concentrations in fall were likely due to increased wind variations, which drove turbulent mixing. Overall, although BC concentrations exhibited directly proportional correlations with PM10 and PM2.5, the correlations were relatively low, probably because of differences between the sources of these three atmospheric pollutants. These results help clarify the characteristics of BC concentrations over the Korean Peninsula.