A total of 588 daily PM filters were collected in five sites in Zhengzhou, and mass concentrations and sources of elements were analyzed. Health risks and source regions of particles and toxic elements were also estimated. Results showed serious PM2.5 and PM10 pollution, especially in traffic sites. PM10-bound As far exceeded the Chinese standards. The total element levels at the rural site were relatively low, and those at the GY site were high. High levels of crustal elements were observed at the SSQ and HKG sites. Seasonal-variation analysis revealed that crustal elements, more abundant in PM10, occurred in high levels in spring; combustion elements, more abundant in PM2.5, presented relative serious pollution in winter; and element concentrations were low in summer. Regarding coefficient of divergence values, those of PM2.5 were slightly higher than those of PM10. Vehicle, industry, coal combustion, oil fuel, dust, and biomass burning were important sources of PM-bound elements. For comparison, the ZM site was characterized by low traffic effect and high contributions of biomass burning and dust emission. The HKG site featured a high proportion of emissions from traffic sources. The SSQ site was highly affected by pollution from vehicles. Combustion sources played more important roles in PM2.5-bound elements, whereas dust source contributed higher for PM10-bound elements. As and Ni caused intolerable carcinogenic risks (CR), and As, Ni, and Pb demonstrated significant non-CR risks. Children were more sensitive, and the daily intake pathway demonstrated the highest CR and hazard index (HI) values. The relative obvious differences of CR and HI values were observed among the various sites, suggesting the necessity of multiple-site study for health risk assessment. Jiyuan, Jiaozuo, Xuchang and Zhoukou; Pingdingshan and Nanyang; and Jiyuan, Jiaozuo, Xinxiang, Anyang, and Kaifeng were the main potential sources of PM2.5, PM10, and As, respectively.