On-board emissions measurements were performed on nine diesel construction machines operated under real-world conditions in China. Emission factors (EFs) for NOx, CO, total hydrocarbons, PM, and particulate number were determined under actual operating conditions, including idling, moving, and working. To investigate the chemical composition of PM from diesel machinery, organic carbon (OC) which contain particulate organic matter (POM) , elemental carbon (EC), water soluble ions (WSIs), elements, were also analyzed herein. OC was the most abundant component (contributing 39.3 ± 11% of mass), followed by EC (37.7 ± 13%). POM species, including n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and n-fatty acids, contributed approximately 2.4-6.4% of the total PM mass. Compounds with 3 or 4 aromatic rings, including pyrene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene, dominated the particulate PAHs, accounting for 62% of the total mass. The results are consistent with previous studies, and these data can help to minimize uncertainty in emission inventories and source apportionment work for non-road machinery.