This study employs principal component analysis to identify fugitive river dust episodes over Zhuoshui River in Taiwan. The scores of the first unrorated principal component were applied as indicators for screening the dust episodes; this component explains 65% of the total variance of the daily PM10 concentrations at monitoring stations by Zhuoshui River. As the other principal components contributed less than 13% of the PM10 concentration, they were not suitable indicators of air pollution episodes. The number of days exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM10 was used as indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the component scores of the first principal component. Furthermore, air pollution episodes resulting from dust storms and transboundary pollution rather than river dust were excluded. The meteorological parameters, synoptic weather, PM10 concentrations, and principal components of the fugitive river dust episodes over Zhuoshui River were also analyzed as references for forecasting fugitive river dust episodes and implementing related air quality management.