Black carbon (BC) aerosol in urban environments has potential effects on the local environment, regional climate cycle, and even human health. A two-year field measurement (May 2014 to July 2016), of BC and particulate matter in Xuzhou, a large industrial city and the economic center city of Huaihai Economic Zone in central China, was conducted. The average annual concentrations of BC, PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 2.44 μg/m3, 56.6 μg/m3, 61.8 μg/m3, and 75.8 μg/m3, respectively. The maximum daily average BC concentration was 11.6 μg/m3, and more than 10% of the hourly measurements had BC concentrations higher than 5 μg/m3. The BC and PM concentrations all had two peaks (rush hours in the morning and night) and one valley (afternoon), considering diurnal variations. In regard to seasonal variation, the BC concentrations were higher in the winter and spring, while the PM concentrations were higher in the winter and autumn. Furthermore, the BC ratios in PM were also higher in the winter and spring. The backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that most high-BC concentration hours were associated with north and northwest winds. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model proves that provinces of central China were the most likely BC source regions for Xuzhou. Our study provides insights into potential atmospheric pollution control measures for provinces of central China, and it is also useful for further air quality forecasting studies.