We describe here the construction and characterization of a new combustion-chamber system (NCAT Chamber) for studying the optical and physicochemical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosols. This system is comprised of a ~9 m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film reactor placed in a temperature-controlled room that uses a tube furnace for combusting biomass under controlled conditions. Optical properties are measured using a cavity ring-down spectrometer, nephelometer, condensation particle counter, and differential mobility analyzer, in conjunction with other analytical instruments, such as NOx, O3, CO, and CO2 analyzers, a gas chromatograph, and filter particle samplers for determining the physicochemical and morphological properties. Construction details and characterization experiments are described, including measurements of BB particulate size distribution and deposition rate, gas wall loss rates, dilution rate, light intensity, mixing speed, temperature and humidity variations, and air purification method. The wall loss rates for NO, NO2, and O3 were found to be (7.40 ± 0.01) × 10−4, (3.47 ± 0.01) × 10−4, and (5.90 ± 0.08) × 10−4 min−1 respectively. The NO2 photolysis rate constant was 0.165 ± 0.005 min–1, which corresponds to a flux of (7.72 ± 0.25) × 1017 photons nm cm−2 s−1 from 296.0−516.8 nm. Particle deposition rate was found to be (9.46 ± 0.18) × 10−3 min−1 for 100 nm pine BB particles. Preliminary results of the single scattering albedo of fresh and aged BB aerosols are also reported.