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Characteristics of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Phthalates during Different Seasons and Haze Periods in Beijing

Category: Air Pollution and Health Effects

Article In Press
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.03.0114
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Yu Wang, Ding Ding, Mushui Shu, Zhiyong Wei, Tong Wang, Qi Zhang, Xiaohui Ji, Pengyao Zhou, Mo Dan

  • Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing 100054, China

Highlights

The indoor phthalate concentration was generally higher than that outdoors.
Much higher concentrations of fine phthalates were found during the haze days.
As age increased, the risk of DEHP carcinogenesis gradually declined.
DEHP inhalation and skin exposure were highest in 1–2-year-old children.


Abstract

We studied the concentrations, seasonal distributions, sources, exposures, and health risks of phthalates in indoor and outdoor PM2.5 in Beijing. The results showed that phthalate concentrations during haze periods were significantly higher than during non-haze periods both indoors and outdoors, with higher concentrations for the former, which reached a maximum of 1995.56 ng m–3. Phthalates are mainly derived from the use of indoor plasticized products, the outdoor plastic products industry, and other sources of fuel emissions. Lifelong exposure to fine (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) through inhalation and dermal absorption was calculated, and the results indicated a risk of cancer, with DEHP carcinogenic risk levels of 4.09 × 10–6 and 10.50 × 10–6 for adults and children, respectively. The highest DEHP carcinogenic risk group was 1–2-year-old children, and the risk decreased afterward with age.

Keywords

PM2.5 Indoor air Exposure


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