New particle formation (NPF) in the East Asia region is strongly influenced by the photochemical processes during long-range transport of air pollutants. Our previous measurements (Chandra et al., 2016; Seto et al., 2013) related to the incomplete and weak NPF (onset diameter above 10 nm) at Fukue Island in Japan (downstream from the Asian continent) suggested nucleation in the upstream region. The vertical structure of atmospheric nanoparticle concentration (particle size > 6 nm and altitude < 1.2 km) during NPF was observed using a Kite-Plane at Fukue Island. Three different event types were identified through aerial observations (different vertical profiles of nanoparticles), ground-based measurements (initial detected diameter of nanoparticles, NPF starting time, and dominant chemical component in PM1), and air mass backward trajectory analysis. A stronger NPF event (Event I: > 35,000 particles cm-3) than in our previous measurements (from 2012 to 2016, ~20,000 particles cm-3) with a particle size as small as 5 nm, affected by long-range transport of air pollutants under a high-pressure system, was detected. A sudden increase of particle number and SO2 concentrations with weak NPF caused by a change of air mass origin (Event II: < 10,000 particles cm-3) as well as no NPF with aged sulfate particles under low particle number concentration and SO2 conditions (< 0.15 ppb) (Event III: < 2,000 particles cm-3) were also observed.