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Activity Pattern of School/University Tenants and their Family Members in Metro Manila – Philippines

Category: Urban Air Quality

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.02.0069
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Simonas Kecorius 1, Everlyn Gayle Tamayo2, Maria Cecilia Galvez3, Leizel MadueƱo1, Grace Betito4, Mylene Gonzaga-Cayetano2, Edgar Vallar3, Alfred Wiedensohler1

  • 1 Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig 04318, Germany
  • 2 Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
  • 3 Physics Department, De La Salle University, 1004 Manila, Philippines
  • 4 Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines


In Metro Manila people spend 52% (workdays) and 70% (weekends) of daytime at home.
Adult males spent less time at home than females.
Most of their time people spend indoors (84%).
On average 11% of daytime people spend in transit traffic.


Limited studies exist focusing onto personal exposure/deposition dose of particulate pollution in developing regions. In this study, as a first step, we present the results on how people spend their daily time in Metro Manila, Philippines. This information is critical in assessing the personal exposure/deposition dose of particulate pollutants. We found that: people spend less time at home on workdays than weekends (52% versus 70%); the time fraction spent at work/school increased with age until retirement; adult males spend less time at home than females (18% versus 28%); most of their time people spend indoors (84%). The biggest difference from previous studies – people in Metro Manila on average spends 11% of their daily time in transit traffic. This is up to 2.2 times more than in Europe, America, Korea or China. Longer times in transit traffic subjects the population of Metro Manila to a higher risk of increased exposure to toxic pollutants and adverse health symptoms. The main results of this study will be used in upcoming study on personal deposition dose of soot.


Activity survey Mega-city Traffic Exposure

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