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Contribution of Indoor-generated and Outdoor-generated Fine and Coarse Particles to Indoor Air in Taiwanese Hospitals

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DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.01.0006
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Chien-Cheng Jung1,2, Pei-Chih Wu3, Chao-Heng Tseng4, Charles C.K. Chou2, Huey-Jen Su 1

  • 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70403, Taiwan
  • 2 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 71101, Taiwan
  • 4 Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan


Contribution of indoor/outdoor-generated particles to indoor air are evaluated.
There is lower infiltration factor values in hospitals with central air conditioning.
Outdoor air is a major contributor of particles to indoor air.
There is higher contribution of indoor-generated particles during working hours.
Ambient pollution sources and air conditioning characteristics are affecting factors.


This study quantified the contributions of indoor-generated and outdoor-generated particles to indoor air in hospitals and examined whether air conditioning type, working area, working hours, and ambient pollution affect these contributions. Indoor and outdoor fine and coarse particles were measured at 33 hospitals, and building characteristics were recorded. The infiltration factor (Finf) was calculated, and the contributions of indoor-generated and outdoor-generated particles to indoor air were assessed. Additionally, their influencing factors on indoor air were evaluated. The Finf values of fine and coarse particles were higher in hospitals with window and signal split type air conditioning than those in hospitals with other types of air conditioning. No significant differences in the Finf values between working areas were observed. Outdoor-generated fine and coarse particles were major contributors to indoor air, regardless of air conditioning type and working area. Higher contributions of indoor-generated fine and coarse particles to indoor air were recorded in clinic waiting areas and lobbies during working hours than during nonworking hours. Ambient air pollutant emissions and air conditioning characteristics influenced the contributions of indoor-generated and outdoor-generated particles to indoor air according to a regression model. In summary, the contribution of outdoor-generated particles to indoor air must be reduced to improve occupants’ health in hospitals.


Indoor air Infiltration factor Particle Hospital

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