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Chemical Characterization of PM1-2.5 and its Associations with PM1, PM2.5-10 and Meteorology in Urban and Suburban Environments

Category: Air Pollution and Health Effects

Article In Press
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.11.0479
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Jana Kozákovác 1,2, Cecilia Leoni2, Miroslav Klán2, Jan Hovorka2, Martin Racek3, Martin Koštejn4, Jakub Ondráček1, Pavel Moravec1, Jaroslav Schwarz1

  • 1 Department of Aerosols Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the CAS, v.v.i., Rozvojová 2, Prague 165 02, Czech Republic
  • 2 Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benátská 2, 12801 Prague 2, Czech Republic
  • 3 Institute of Petrology and Structural Geology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, Prague128 43, Czech Republic
  • 4 Department of Laser Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the CAS, v.v.i., Rozvojová 2, Prague 165 02, Czech Republic

Highlights

Behavior of PM1-2.5 differed by site and between seasons.
Coarse/fine PM effects on PM1-2.5 depended on the RH and PM source.
Elemental compositions were similar for PM1-2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM0.5-1 in summer.
PM1 effect on PM1-2.5 was observed during high RH, especially in winter.


Abstract

This study investigated the PM1-2.5 (the intermodal fraction of particulate matter) representing the transition area between the fine and coarse size ranges. Due to this characteristic, PM1-2.5 may contain particles from both modes. The aim of this work was to examine the associations between PM1-2.5 and the coarse (PM2.5-10)/fine (PM1) fraction under different meteorological conditions at various sites in the Czech Republic during winter and summer.

Size-resolved PM mass concentrations were determined and meteorological parameters recorded at an urban industrial and a suburban site in Ostrava during winter 2014 and at an urban traffic site and a suburban site in Prague during summer 2014 and winter 2015. The influence of sources producing the coarse/fine fraction on PM1-2.5 was investigated with an elemental composition analysis and an ion analysis (Ca2+-representing PM2.5-10 and SO42–-representing PM1).

During all campaigns, PM1-2.5 accounted for 1–26% of PM10. In winter, crustal elements (Si, Fe, and Ca) significantly influenced the coarse fraction and even PM1-2.5 at all sites, while sulfur was significant in PM1-2.5 and the fine fraction at suburban sites. The median SO42– concentration was higher than the Ca2+ concentration in PM1-2.5 at all sites, except the industrial site, due to a specific source. The increased SO42– amount in PM1-2.5 was also observed in summer during rainy days (Prague urban site). In summer, crustal elements were important in both, PM1-2.5 and the coarse fraction, while S still dominated in PM1. Median SO42– concentrations in PM1-2.5 and the coarse fraction were significantly lower than in winter. The enrichment factors and wind speed-direction analysis helped to reveal potential air pollution sources.

To conclude, according to the performed analyses, PM1-2.5 was influenced by the sources of the coarse fraction during all campaigns. The additional significant influence of sources producing the fine fraction was evident under increased relative humidity conditions.

Keywords

Aerosol intermodal fraction Personal cascade impactor sampler Enrichment factor Elemental composition Scanning electron microscope Multisite measurement


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