Two-year CALIPSO level 2 version 2 data were analyzed to obtain regional distributions of vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC) across China. 10 typical geographical regions were selected for comparison, which cover various aerosol pollution levels, climate zones, and underlying surfaces. The whole troposphere was split into two-layers, Lower- and Upper-layer, separated by the maximum boundary layer height, representing the boundary layer and upper tropospheric layer, respectively. The annual average of the column-average AEC in the 10 regions ranged from 0.066 to 0.243 km–1 in the Lower-layer and from 0.022 to 0.059 km–1 in the Upper-layer. Regional AEC in the Lower-layer was the highest in central and eastern China followed by Sichuan Basin, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, the capital economic circle, Pearl River Delta, desert region, Tibet Plateau, northeast China, northwest semi-arid plateau, and the lowest in the East China Sea. Seasonal AEC in the Lower-layer was the highest in spring in desert and marine regions, summer in Tibet Plateau, and autumn or winter in the other regions. The regional and seasonal patterns of AEC in the Lower-layer agreed to a large extent with known regional distributions of surface-layer PM2.5 distributions and dominant seasonal emission sources in their respective regions. Regional and seasonal patterns in the Upper-layer were slightly different from those in the Lower-layer due to different transport pathways of aerosol pollution in different regions. Proportion of occurrence under different pollution conditions and the number of polluted days were also estimated based on AEC vertical profiles for each region for the Lower- and Upper-layer separately.