Articles online

Gaseous and Carbonaceous Composition of PM2.5 Emitted from Rural Vehicles in China

Category: Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry

Volume: 18 | Issue: 8 | Pages: 1993-2004
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.10.0401

Export Citation:  RIS | BibTeX

Xianbao Shen, Hui Wu, Xinyue Cao, Wei Zhang, Zhiliang Yao , Xuewei Hao

  • School of Food and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China


10 3-W RVs and 8 4-W RVs were measured in Hebei Province using a PEMS.
The carbonaceous component represents the main fraction of PM2.5 emitted from RVs.
The CO2-based EFs of OC and EC decreased with increasing vehicle mass.
More cruise and less creep mode caused higher EC/OC for 3-W RVs than 4-W RVs.


Rural vehicles (RVs) could contribute significantly to on-road vehicle emissions, especially PM2.5 and NOx; This study tested 10 three-wheeled (3-W) RVs and 8 four-wheeled (4-W) RVs on real roads in Hebei Province using a portable emissions measurement system to investigate gaseous concentrations (CO, NOx, and HC) and the carbonaceous composition (EC and OC) of the PM2.5 emitted. The results showed that the tightening emission standards resulted in the CO, HC, and PM2.5 emissions for China II RVs decreasing, but may increasing NOx emission for China II 3-W RVs. The emission level of PM2.5 for China II RVs is between Euro II LDDTs and Euro III LDDTs. The emission factors (EFs) of OC and EC for 3-W RVs were 0.035 ± 0.019 and 0.058 ± 0.055 g km-1, respectively, and for 4-W RVs, they were 0.046 ± 0.018 and 0.031 ± 0.024 g km-1, respectively. The carbonaceous component represents the main fraction of PM2.5 emitted from RVs (84.6% and 87.2% for 3-W and 4-W RVs, respectively), similar to other diesel vehicles. The average distance-based EFs of OC increased with increasing vehicle size (3-W RVs < 4-W RVs). The CO2-based EFs of OC and EC decreased with increasing vehicle mass, consistent with the emission laws of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Driving cycles that included more cruise mode and less creep mode resulted in a higher average EC/OC ratio (1.57) for 3-W RVs than for 4-W RVs (0.63), and resulted in the average EC/OC ratios for both types of RV were lower than for highway LDDTs.


Carbonaceous composition Gaseous emission Particulate matter Rural vehicle PEMS

Related Article

Elemental Composition, Morphology and Sources of Fine Particulates (PM2.5) in Hefei City, China

Huaqin Xue, Guijian Liu , Hong Zhang, Ruoyu Hu, Xin Wang
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.09.0341

Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms of Sulfate and Nitrate in Size-segregated Atmospheric Particles from Urban Guangzhou, China

Feng Jiang, Fengxian Liu, Qinhao Lin, Yuzhen Fu, Yuxiang Yang, Long Peng, Xiufeng Lian, Guohua Zhang , Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, Guoying Sheng

Characteristics of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases at a Regional Background Station in Southwestern China

Linjun Cheng, Dongsheng Ji , Jun He, Liang Li, Li Du, Yang Cui, Hongliang Zhang, Luxi Zhou, Zhiqing Li, Yingxin Zhou, Shengyuan Miao, Zhengyu Gong, Yuesi Wang

Aerosol Pollution Characterization before Chinese New Year in Zhengzhou in 2014

Xiuli Wei , Huaqiao Gui, Jianguo Liu, Jie Zhang, Schwab James, Minguang Gao
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.06.0226