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Source Apportionment of Air Pollution and Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, North Taiwan

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 17 | Issue: 11 | Pages: 2878-2890
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.09.0317
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Dika Rahayu Widiana1,2, Sheng-Jie You2, Hsi-Hsien Yang3, Jung-Hsuan Tsai2, Ya-Fen Wang 2

  • 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan 32023, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 41349, Taiwan


103 VOCs, TVOC, CO, CO2, NH3, H2S, and particulate matter were measured.
PCA/ACPS were applied and determined to have five sources.
Ozone formation potential (OFP) was calculated and toluene had the highest value.


Monitoring air quality in the municipal wastewater treatment plants is an initial stage in preventing several problems related to air emissions. This study measured 103 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total VOC (TVOC), and some prominent air pollutants (CO, CO2, NH3, H2S, PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, TSP) in the municipal wastewater treatment plant X located in the north of Taiwan. Thirty-three VOCs were identified, which categorized as alkane, aromatic, alkene, ester, ether, haloalkane and ketone. Five dominant factors were determined from principal component analysis (PCA). The first factor involves indoor activities (such as particulate matter resuspension), and outdoor activities (such as vehicles exhausts), which explained 32.42% of total variance. Factor 2 was paint applications and domestic wastewater decomposition, with an explained variance of 17.23%. Factor 3 was solvent use, with an explained variance of 14.26%. Factor 4 was solvent use and road dust, with an explained variance of 8.54%. Factor 5 was a byproduct of the chlorination treatment process, with an explained variance of 6.92%. The five factors explained 79.37% of total variance. By applying absolute principal component scores (APCS), source apportionments were obtained having 35.21%, 26.04%, 16.13%, 7.03%, and 15.59% for factors 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Toluene had the highest ozone formation potential (OFP).


Air quality Municipal wastewater treatment VOCs PCA APCS OFP

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