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Persistent Organic Pollutant Reductions from a Diesel Engine Generator Fueled with Waste Cooking Oil-based Biodiesel Blended with Butanol and Acetone

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 17 | Issue: 8 | Pages: 2041-2050
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.07.0233
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Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Sheng-Lun Lin2,3, Shui-Jen Chen 1, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien3,4, Bo-Cheng Jheng1, Kuo-Lin Huang1, Chih-Chung Lin1, Juei-Yu Chiu1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 3 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Cosmetics and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan

Highlights

Emissions of persistent organic pollutant from a diesel generator were estimated.
POP concentration is lower for dehydrate/hydrous butanol and acetone blends.
The reduction fractions of POPs were in the order PCDD/F > PCB ≈ PBDD/F > PBDE.


Abstract

This investigation focuses on the effects on emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) from a diesel engine fuelled by 20 vol% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (W20) blended with various fractions of dehydrate/hydrous butanol (B/B′) and acetone (A/A′). The emission concentrations of the POPs were in the order PBDE ≫ PBDD/F > PCB > PCDD/F, regardless of the blending fuel or engine load. The POP with highest concentration was PBDE, being 2–3 times that of the others. Conversely, the magnitude of emitted toxicity followed the order PCDD/F > PCB ≈ PBDD/F, while PCDD/F emissions had about 10 times the toxicity concentrations of PCBs and PBDD/Fs. Among the dioxin compounds, the emissions of PCDDs represented 46–73% (average 57%) and 50–72% (average 59%) of total PCDD/F mass and toxicity concentrations, respectively, and were which and were thus significantly higher than those of PCDFs. The non-ortho-PCB contributed almost all toxicity (~100%) of 14 dioxin-like-PCBs, even though its contribution in mass was only 9–32% (average 16%) among the congeners. Similarly, PBDFs accounted for ~100% of toxicity of PBDD/Fs. Additionally, deca-BDEs contributed to most of the mass emissions of PBDEs (47.0–90.5%, 82.4% in average), while nona-BDEs and tri- to octa-BDEs only contributed 10% and 8%, respectively. The reductions of the absolute mass concentrations of POPs from W20 were in the order PBDEs >> PBDD/Fs > PCDD/Fs ≈ PCBs for all multi-component diesel blends. The reduction fractions of POPs were in the order PCDD/F > PCB ≈ PBDD/F > PBDE, and those of TEQ were PCDD/F > PCB > PBDD/F. Thus, the addition of butanol and acetone, whether pure or hydrous, could further lower the POP emissions from W20.

Keywords

Generator engine Waste cooking oil-based biodiesel Butanol Acetone Persistent organic pollutants


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