Air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5), volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols is a major environmental risk to health. We developed a photocatalytic air cleaner for reducing the pollution levels of indoor air; we improved the photocatalytic system by using UV-LED for the removal of acetaldehyde and PM2.5 and by reducing the weight and size of the system. The efficiency of photocatalysis depends on the surface area and materials. Therefore, we prepared a nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated aluminum plate irradiated by UV-LED lamps (wavelength: 375 nm) as a photocatalytic air cleaner. Passing air continuously through a TiO2-coated aluminum plate (5 × 10 × 1 cm) under black light for 200 min decomposed 90% of 5 ppm acetaldehyde (12.4 µmol h–1) and generated two carbon dioxide molecules (25.43 µmol h–1) at a molar ratio of 1:2, indicating complete decomposition of acetaldehyde with high efficiency. This photocatalytic air cleaner was applied to the decomposition of acetaldehyde and inactivation and removal of aerosol-associated influenza virus. Acetaldehyde (20 ppm) in a 1-m3 cubic space was eliminated in 60 min at a half-life of 8 min. The aerosol-associated infectivity and the RNA genome of influenza virus A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1) produced by a nebulizer in a 779-L cubic space were eliminated within 7 min; however, they were detectable for up to 28 minutes when the functional photocatalytic air cleaner was not used. The presence of intermediate breakdown products of influenza virus indicated that the virus was broken down by photocatalysis. Thus, the photocatalytic air cleaner efficiently decomposed and eliminated organic chemicals, acetaldehyde, and aerosol-associated influenza virus infectivity and viral RNA, indicating that it can clean and detoxify the indoor air in a closed space for maintaining a safer environment.