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Atmospheric Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Two Cities of Northern China

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 17 | Issue: 8 | Pages: 2027-2040
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.06.0217
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Jinning Zhu1, Jin Xing1, Haiyan Tang1, Wen-Jhy Lee 1,2, Ping Yan 1, Kangping Cui1, Qianli Huang3

  • 1 School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 246011, China
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 3 School of Biological and Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China

Highlights

Dry Deposition Flux of PCDD/Fs.
Wet Deposition Flux of PCDD/Fs.
Dry Deposition Velocities of PCDD/Fs.
Scavenging Ratios of PCDD/Fs.


Abstract

Monitoring atmospheric deposition fluxes (dry and wet deposition) is of great importance in tracing the environmental fate and behavior of PCDD/Fs. To further understand the characteristics of both dry and wet PCDD/F deposition in Northern China, two cities, namely Harbin and Shijiazhuang were investigated. During 2014, in Harbin, the monthly dry deposition fluxes of total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ ranged between 308 and 1290 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 month–1, with an annual flux of 8240 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1; however, in Shijiazhuang, the dry deposition fluxes ranged from 699 to 2230 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 month–1, with an annual 15400 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1. Monthly dry deposition velocities of particle phase total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ are similar, ranging between 0.42 and 0.94 cm s–1 (average 0.59 cm s–1) and between 0.42 and 0.92 cm s–1 (average 0.6 cm s–1) in Harbin and Shijiazhuang, respectively. Due to the low level of rainfall in Northern China, the monthly wet deposition fluxes were in the range of 3–79.9 (369 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1) and 0–140 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 month–1 (622 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1) in Harbin and Shijiazhuang, respectively. In addition, the average scavenging ratios of total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ were 31900 and 30700 in Harbin and Shijiazhuang, respectively. Combined with dry and wet deposition, the annual total (dry + wet) deposition flux in Shijiazhuang (16100 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1) is 1.9 times of magnitude higher than that in Harbin (8610 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–2 year–1). The results indicated that the dry deposition flux was the major mechanism for removal of PCDD/Fs from the atmosphere in Northern China. By examining both the PM2.5 level and total-PCDD/Fs-WHO2005-TEQ deposition in Northern China, and comparing the values with those found in other places, it is clear that there is an urgent need to control the particulate emissions in this area.

Keywords

Dry deposition Wet deposition PCDD/Fs PM10 PM2.5 Northern China


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