Air pollutant emissions from the coking industry in China, the world’s largest coke producer, are a major societal concern. This study employed a bottom–up emission factor methodology to estimate the country’s coking industry air pollutant emissions. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4) were considered. The emissions of typical air pollutants in 2015 were estimated to be 368.36, 23.28, 402.54, 174.43, 1325.42, 28.24, 2036.43, and 71.68 kt for TSP, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, VOCs, PAHs, CO, and CH4, respectively, with an annual average growth rate of 1.1% during the 12th five–year–plan (2011–2015). A comparative analysis was performed on emission contribution of air pollutants produced from various types of coke oven and using various coking procedures. The objectives of the 13th five–year–plan (2016–2020) were used to estimate the coke production and control technologies of China’s coking industry in 2020 and to analyze the emission reduction potential of typical air pollutants. The result showed that the emissions of TSP, SO2, and NOx from China’s coking industry will be reduced by 82.9%, 94.4%, and 6.9%, respectively. Moreover, this study proposed a series of feasible control measures that can be used to control air pollutant emissions from the coking industry in China.